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AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

 

Agriculture is the mother of all culture and the progenitor of human civilization. The recorded history provides ample proof for rich heritage of Indian agriculture. The agriculture that flourished during Aryan and the Indus valley civilization dating back to 3000 B.C., stands testimony to Indian culture through agriculture. Agriculture provides the main economic support to the State. The importance Karnataka had given to agriculture is indicated by the statement of famous Kannada poet Sarvajnya who says that ‘Meti Vidye’ (agricultural science) is superior to ‘Koti vidye’ (millions of other sciences).

 

Ancient Agriculture

During the Vedic period (4500-1000 B.C.,) the Arthashastra, which is a part of Atharvanaveda, covers on agriculture, amidst other things, including cultivation of lands. Kautilya’s Arthashastra has also covered on law, land legislation, etc., in agriculture. Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar in 1033 A.D. has stated that “They alone live, who live by tilling the soil and all others but follow in their train and eat only the bread of dependence”. Thus agriculture has received greater attention in India from ancient period. Some rulers of the past in India recognized the need for development of agriculture.

 

Karnataka, like India, had depended mainly on agriculture in ancient times. Even in the prehistoric era, cereals like ragi (finger millet), wheat, paddy and Huruli (Dolichos biflorus) were grown in Karnataka. People in ancient Karnataka realised the importance of agriculture and eulogised it. Poet Kumaravyasa says “Agriculture is the foremost of all professions” and adds that a country without agriculture is not fit for a living. Inscriptions divide agricultural land as wet land, land depending only on rain and dry land.

 

In historical times, Karnataka was famous for its rice, ragi and jowar crops and rice was a major export from its coastal ports. Spices like pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger etc., were also grown in plenty, some of them being wild crops. Literary and epigraphical sources speak of its rich rice fields and plantations of coconut, areca nut plantations.

 

The Portuguese introduced maize, tobacco, groundnut, potato, chillies and tomato from the New World and Karnataka could get the knowledge of these new crops early due to its proximity to Goa. The dry crops of ancient Karnataka included wheat, jowar, ragi, kambu (Indian millet) and baragu (common millet). In addition, pulses like horsegram, togari (toor), blackgram (uddina kaalu), greengram (hesaru kaalu), Indian gram (avare), huruli, alasande, etc., were grown.

 

Of the oilseeds, castor, sesame and kusube were notable and cotton was one of the notable fibre crops. “These dominions are very well cultivated and very fertile”, says Domingo Paes, the Portuguese traveller to Vijayanagar and adds “this land has plenty of rice and Indian corn, grains, beans and other kinds of crops which are not sown in our parts also an infinity of cotton. Francis Buchannan who visited Karnataka during the beginning of the 19th century says that rice grounds were “more neatly cultivated than those in Malabar”, while speaking of the Kannada coast. Buchanan also speaks of varieties of paddy such as dodda bhatta, kembhuti, yalakki raja, dily sanna bhatta and putta bhatta grown in Mysore area.

 

Lot of attention was being paid to manuring the land and processing of seeds. Villages had a common place where cow dung from all the cattle pens was dumped and it was called thippe and was auctioned annually. Buchanan also states that great attention was paid to manuring the soil and that leaves of various wild trees were also used as manure. Farmers living in the vicinity of cities brought the garbage from the cities and used it as manure, says the English official.

 

A Tamil record from Channapatna taluk speaks of two crops of paddy being raised in 1014 AD and records from Dakshina Kannada speak of fields where three, two or one crop were raised annually.

 

Reclamation of land by clearing forests is mentioned in records. An inscription of 1232 AD speaks of several gavundas (headmen) founding a village called Bankihalli and building a tank. On the request of mahajan’s of Kondali Agrahara (Belur taluk), one house-holder with the help of his family members, cut down trees, founded a new village and excavated two tanks in 1183. Areas that required to be explored were donated to Brahmins and other adventurous people for reclamation. Vast tracts were given to adventurous feudal chieftains too like Vijayanagar Emperor giving huge Malnad tracts to the Keladi Nayakas or Kempe Gowda of Bangalore being asked to surrender Bangalore and shift his headquarters to Magadi surrounded by unreclaimed tracts, by the Adilshah. Those who cut down forests and brought new lands under cultivation were exempted from land revenue for a number of years and after some years only a percentage of revenue was realised.

 

The plough that was in use was almost the same as it is today. Many Rashtrakuta inscriptions like the one of Mavali have a plough engraved on them. So, it is with regard to many other agricultural implements. Astrologers were consulted to ascertain rainfall nakshatras (male nakshatras) before sowing. While raising flower and fruit plants, grafting was practised as testified by ‘Lokopakara’, various methods of grafting are also described in the work.

 

In Kodagu there are records of the early 19th century, when the Prince while granting lands to some of his favourites or servants also granted them some bonded labourers, mostly from the lower castes, to help cultivating the land better.

 

Agriculture did not change radically from the ancient period to the modern. The contact with the Portuguese and Indian Christians from Goa, who migrated to Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada and Shimoga regions, very much helped to popularise new techniques in various aspects of agriculture and animal husbandry. But the new ideas spread very slowly. Vegetable and fruit varieties introduced by the Portuguese came to be raised. The Portuguese were responsible for the introduction of major crops like potato, maize, chillies, tobacco, groundnut and fruits like papaya and pineapple. Tipu was responsible for the introduction of Mulberry cultivation and many new varieties of flora. The ‘cotton boom’ evidenced during the American civil war brought vast tracks of land in north Karnataka and Chitradurga district under cotton cultivation. Industrial revolution gave fillip to the raising of cash crops.

 

Agriculture during British Period

The British introduced long fibred American cotton in India and especially in Bombay-Karnataka Region. The Cotton Boom of the American Civil War days (1860’s) gave an unprecedented fillip to cotton cultivation. Coffee plantations were raised on a large scale by the British during the 19th century. The British Imperial Government recognised the vast potentiality of Indian Agriculture and took various steps for improve the sector. In India, a separate Agriculture Department was established in 1871.

 

The Agricultural expert and Chief of Rothamsted Agriculture Experiment Station, England, Sir John Russel, who was invited during 1936-37, provided the blueprint for the overall agriculture development in India. Dry farming research was initiated besides several commodity committees like cotton, sugarcane, coffee, tea, rubber, spices etc., were introduced. This was mainly to exploit the potentiality of commercial crops.

 

Though the Rulers of Karnataka paid much attention to irrigation, especially tanks, irrigated area did not exceed five percent before the major irrigation works were taken up after Independence. After Independence, the Indian Government embarked on various activities to strengthen agricultural education by setting up agriculture colleges in every State, research stations to strengthen research on various crops and allied subjects and also to strengthen agricultural extension and development.

 

In 1949, the Education Commission under the Chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan recommended the establishment of Rural Universities to meet the Agriculture challenges in terms of education, research and extension. The Joint Indo – American Committee (1955-60) recommended establishment of these institutions on the pattern of ‘Land Grant Colleges’ in USA. Thus, the first Agriculture University was set up at Pantnagar in U.P during July 1960, which was inaugurated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India. Later, Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) emphasized to set up at least one Agricultural University in each State. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru was started in the year 1966; the University of Agriculture Sciences, Dharwad in the year 1986 and the University of Agricultural Sciences at Raichur. Later University of Agricultural and Horticultural University was started in Shivamogga.

 

Agriculture in Karnataka

Sir Mark Cubbon (Commissioner, 1834-1861), having realized the potentiality of agriculture in the then Princely State of Mysuru, in his pioneer efforts in 1836 took steps towards scientific agriculture and set up the agriculture society in Mysuru. In 1857, Visternew was appointed as Superintendent, Bengaluru Botanical Garden (Lalbagh). He took various measures to improve horticultural activities. In 1862, Signorde Vichi introduced new mulberry varieties silkworm strains and added new dimensions in sericulture in Mysuru. In 1869, Mr. Von Somerin, as Conservator of Forests gave the beginning to scientific forestry in Mysuru.

 

It is our bounded duty to remember with gratitude Rajarishi Sri Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wadeyar, the then Maharaja of Mysuru (1894-1940). He having realized potentials of Agriculture took up various developmental activities systematically and put Karnataka first in India in various aspects of agriculture. In 1899 he appointed Dr. Lehman (a German chemist) who set up a Soils Laboratory and the multi-disciplinary agricultural laboratory in 1901. Dr. Lesile C. Coleman (a Canadian Scientist) was also appointed in 1905 as Scientist to take up entomology and pathology research. In 1907, Coleman took over the charge of Lehman. During 1912, a separate Department of Agriculture was started bifurcating from the Revenue and other Departments based on the recommendations of Dr. Leslie Coleman who was also appointed as first Director of Agriculture in July 5, 1913. He takes the credit of starting the four years Diploma Course in agriculture at Hebbal, Bengaluru on 5th July 1913, being the first in Asia. Later in 1916, he started agricultural school at Chikkanahalli (Tumakuru) and later at Anekal (Bengaluru), Somanahalli (Mandya) etc., He also started several research stations, at Thirthalli (Areca nut), Balehonnur (Coffee), V.C. Farm, Mandya (Sugarcane, Paddy, Ragi) and Babbur (Oil seeds), to cater to the needs of local agricultural problems. The research station at Mandya was probably the first centre in India, established for irrigated ecosystem in 1930. Dr. Coleman prepared a master plan to start agriculture degree college before he retired in 1937. He visited Mysuru State again in 1950 at the invitation of the then Mysuru Maharaja Sri Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar and prepared comprehensive agriculture developmental plan for the State. In 1946, agricultural colleges were started at Hebbal and Dharwad which later graduated into University of Agriculture Sciences in 1966.

 

As much as the farmers of Karnataka, Department of Agriculture owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Coleman for his vision and determination for the overall development of agriculture education, research and development in Karnataka.

 

Agriculture around 1951

The state of Mysore around 1951 had a fairly progressive agriculture with improved varieties in various crops including H-22 ragi, halubbalu and bangar-kovi paddy, HM-320 sugarcane, MA-5 cotton and improved varieties of groundnut. The productivity of some of these crops are of high standard. The State had inherited a vast net-work of tanks and open irrigation wells apart from irrigation projects. On the eve of the first five- year plan in 1951, the State had a good infrastructure for agriculture in the origin of an agricultural school and a Serum Institute at Hebbal, a fertiliser factory at Belagola, a sugar factory at Mandya and an agricultural implements factory at Hassan. The spinning and textile mills at Davangere and in places outside Mysore like Hubballi, Gokak and Gulbarga and sugar factories at Ugar Khurd and Kittur (Athani Taluk) are to be noted here.

 

In the years that followed a systematic development of agriculture has taken place in the State. The new State has six major crops, viz., paddy, jowar, ragi, maize, wheat and bajra. Cotton and sugarcane have acquired greater importance, pulses including Bengal gram and oilseeds including safflower also have acquired equal importance. Considerable progress has been achieved in agriculture with extensive coverage under high yielding varieties under all the food crops. The State has the distinction of having the highest productivity in maize in the country. Spectacular progress has been achieved in the case of cotton with the introduction of Varalakshmi, a long-staple variety. The credit for evolving this variety goes to the State. A commendable achievement has also been made in the case of sugarcane. The institutional base for agricultural development has also expanded.

 

Agricultural Development under Five Year Plans

When the State came into being in November 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was already under implementation. Therefore, the new State had no opportunity to formulate a comprehensive agriculture development plan as part of the second Five Year Plan. All that the State could do was to put together the plan schemes that came in piecemeal from the integrating areas and implement them as successfully as possible. This was done with a fair degree of success. In the meantime, Third Five Year Plan was formulated which was implemented from 1961 to 1966. Due care was bestowed on formulating comprehensive schemes, keeping in view the needs of the new state. For all practical purposes, it could be said that the Third Five Year Plan was in fact the First Five Year Plan for the new State. 

      

Agricultural development in the State could be divided broadly into four phases. The first phase from 1956 to 1966 when the developmental activities were confined to traditional measures like expanding of cultivated area, increasing the irrigational sources, popularizing the use of chemical fertilizers and improved agricultural practice like Japanese method of rice cultivation, use of improved seeds etc. with a view to increase agricultural production as quickly as possible. The second phase between 1966 to 1980 when the new technology, particularly the hybrids and the high yielding varieties made a significant contribution to increased agriculture production, particularly cereals with more emphasis on intensive cultivation than on extensive cultivation as in the previous decade. And the third phase from 1980 to 1995 when special attention was paid on the under privileged sections of the farming population like the small and marginal farmers, farmers belonging to Scheduled Castes and Tribes, and more specifically on the dry land farmers. During the fourth phase period (from 1995) the State Government brought out its own Agricultural Policy during 1995 giving emphasis from adaptation to the changed scenario owing to globalization and liberalization of International trade and to achieve integrated growth and also to achieve high growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors.

 

Agricultural Policy of Karnataka

A large portion of the land falls under semiarid conditions facing severe agro-climatic and resource constraints. Interestingly, coexisting with this are a few patches of high value-high-tech agriculture. This emerged only during last two decades and has a sporadic presence in the State. Consequently, Karnataka’s agriculture is at the same time diversified and segmented in many ways.

 

Karnataka has always taken a lead ahead of the other States in India in many respects as far as Agricultural Policy initiatives are concerned. The State did not lag behind any other State in preparing a document assessing the situation emerging out of Agreement on Agriculture under the WTO. The State also recognizes the increasing distress in the farm sector at an alarming rate and the stagnation of net income flow in the farm sector.

 

The first imperative of the Agriculture adopted by the Government of Karnataka in 1995 aimed to provide opportunities for the farmers to enhance their net income to a respectable level. This can be achieved through various ways. Increasing aggregate production is the first and foremost need. This surely is a necessary condition, but not a sufficient condition, as markets and prices play very crucial role in deciding the net income flow to the farm household. Therefore, this policy document keeps at the forefront improving net farm income of the farmer as the prime goal. In order to achieve this, the policy document touches the aspects of crop planning, production, technology, marketing and prices as foremost components.

 

In order to achieve consistent income flow that records a growth rate significantly higher than the growth rate in the Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Labourers and for rural areas, it will be essential to place the target of agricultural growth rate at 4.5 per cent per annum. The 4.5 per cent growth rate in gross value of agricultural production will set the net income increase by about three per cent per annum for the farm household, this should be sufficient to take care of increasing prices of inputs, as well as the changes in the terms of trade between agriculture and non-agricultural sectors.

 

The philosophy of the present Agricultural Policy lies in the concept of ‘Pancha Sutra’ that was announced by the State in its budget 2006- 07 for accelerated growth in agriculture. The five components of Sutra are: (i) To protect and improve soil health, (ii) Conservation of natural resources with special emphasis on water and micro irrigation, (iii) Timely availability of credit and other inputs to the farmers, (iv) Integrate post-harvest processing with the production process and (v) Reducing the distance between ‘Lab to Land’ in transfer of technology.

 

This is a ‘Farmer Centric’ policy; therefore, the process of development begins at the farm. It further covers the role of the State in terms of budgetary support and macro-economic adjustments, production and technology, sector, environmental friendliness of the farmer, land issues, agro-processing, associated trade and value addition to the farm products, removal of distortions in domestic market and finally strengthening of the allied agricultural sector and linkages.

 

First, this policy envisages achieving a growth rate of 4.5 per cent per annum during the next decade. It is expected that this growth rate will help to increase the net income of the farmer. It will also help to bridge the income differentials between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sectors. Second, the policy focuses on the bypassed regions, as well as bypassed groups of farmers in the process of development adopted. Third, hither to the technological change has been ‘supply driven’ rather than ‘demand driven’. The distance between the ‘Labs to land’ has always created a lag in reaching the technology at the doorsteps of farmers. Fourth, natural resources are under stress, whether it is soil, water or the other biological resources. It is very essential to conserve the resources and at the same time, provide better production environment. Lastly, access to factor market and quality of the inputs supplied to the farmers.

 

AGRICULTURAL CENSUS 2010-11

Agricultural census is conducted in all the States and Union Territories in the Country, at the instance of Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India, which provides cent per cent financial assistance for every Agricultural Census. It is a quinquennial census conducted once in five years since its inception in 1970-71. So far, Nine Agricultural Censuses have been conducted, the latest being the 2010- 11 census.

 

The importance of Agricultural Census is to know the structure and characteristics of agricultural holdings operated by cultivators. Besides, data on land use, sources of irrigation, cropping pattern and dispersal of operated area are also collected on sampling basis. As a follow up of Agricultural Census, Input Survey is conducted, with the main objective of collecting the data, that relate to number of parcels, multiple cropping, land use pattern, use of chemical fertilizers, organic and inorganic manure, agricultural implements and agricultural credit availed by cultivators. The number and size of operational holdings were collected for both male and female operational holders separately. Before the commencement of the Agricultural Census, the year 2005-06 was declared as ‘Land Records Year’ with a view to update all the records (RTC) by the Revenue authorities, which are required for correct and authentic information on land holdings to be reflected during the conduct of the census.

 

The main findings of the Agriculture census 2010-11 are listed here (only state findings):

  1. The total number of operational holdings in the State is 78.32 lakhs as per 2010-11 Agricultural Census, compared to 75.81 lakhs of previous census 2005-06, this has registered an increase of 3.3 per cent.
  2. Of the 78.32 lakhs holdings, the male dominated holdings are 63.33 lakhs accounting for 80.86 per cent of the total number of holdings, while, the female accounted for 14.86 lakh holdings (18.97 per cent) and the remaining 0.13 lakh holdings are owned by institutions, which account for a mere 0.19 per cent.
  3. Among the five major size classes of holdings, the marginal holdings (less than one hectare) account for a maximum share of 49.1 per cent of the total number of holdings, followed by small holdings (one to two hectares) 27.3 per cent, semi-medium holdings (two to four hectares) 16.2 per cent, medium holdings (four to ten hectares) 6.5 per cent and large holdings (10 hectares and above) 0.9 per cent, being the least.
  4. The total area operated under all operational holdings in the current census is found to be 121.62 lakh hectares, a marginal decrease by 1.8 per cent as compared to the previous census 2005- 06 figure of 123.85 lakh hectares.
  5. The area operated by male operational holders is 101.90 lakh hectares, which constitute 83.78 per cent of the total area operated, while the area operated by female operational holders is 18.92 lakh hectares, constituting 15.61 per cent and the remaining 0.74 lakh hectare, operated by institutional holdings, constitute just 0.61 per cent.
  6. As regards, the area operated by different size classes of holdings, semi-medium size class holdings has the highest percentage of area operated i.e., 27.9 per cent, closely followed by small class with 24.8 per cent, medium size class with 23.9 per cent, marginal size class with 15.2 per cent and the large size class with 8.2 per cent, which has the least share.
  7. The average size of operational holdings has come down marginally, from 1.63 hectares in 2005-06 census to 1.55 hectares in 2010-11 census by 0.08 hectare, which is mainly due to sub-division and fragmentation of land holdings that this trend is common in every Agricultural Census.
  8. The average size of operational holdings, in the case of male is found to be 1.61 hectares as compared to 1.28 hectares of female operational holders.
  9. One notable feature is that the average size of holdings increases with increase in size classes. The marginal size class showed the minimum of 0.48 hectare of average size holdings, followed by small size class holdings 1.41 hectares, semi medium size class 2.68 hectares, medium size class 5.69 hectares and large size class 14.71 hectares, being the maximum.
  10. Among the social groups, the total number of holdings of scheduled caste group was found to be 9.14 lakhs, which showed an increase of 3.6 per cent over the previous census figure of 8.82 lakhs. So also in case of scheduled tribe group the number of holdings, which are 4.73 lakhs as per 2010-11 census has increased by 7.7 per cent, as compared to 4.39 lakhs in 2005-06 census.
  11. The area operated by scheduled caste operational holders is found to be 10.74 lakh hectares in 2010-11 census when compared to 2005-06 census figure of 11 lakh hectares there by registering a decrease of 2.4 per cent. In case of scheduled tribe operational holders, the area operated decreased from 7.25 lakh hectares in 2005-06 census to 7.05 lakh hectares in 2010-11 census decrease by 2.8 per cent.
  12. The average size of operational holdings by scheduled caste according to 2010-11 census is 1.18 hectares, which is dropped marginally by 0.07 hectare as compared to 1.25 hectares in 2005-06 census. So also in case of scheduled tribe, it has come down by 0.16 hectare i.e., from 1.65 hectares in 2005-06 census to 1.49 hectares in 2010-11 census.
  13. The other social group held 64.33 lakh holdings with an operated area of 103.09 lakh hectares, with 1.60 hectares of average size of operational holdings in 2010-11 census. Whereas in 2005-06 census, which has been indicated as a lower number of 62.45 lakh holdings, while the operated area showed a marginal increase of 104.87 lakh hectares resulted in a slightly higher average size of operational holding of 1.68 hectares.
  14. Among the different types of holdings, obviously the Individual type holdings had the maximum share of 99.13 per cent of the total operational holdings, while the Joint type accounted for 0.70 per cent and the Institutional type holdings accounted for negligible 0.17 per cent, as per 2010-11 Agricultural Census.
  15. The area operated by types of holdings is also synonymous, since 98.55 per cent of the total area operated is by Individual type holdings, 0.85 per cent of area operated is by Joint type and the remaining 0.6 per cent by the Institutional type as per 2010-11 Agricultural Census.
  16. The average size of Individual type of holdings as per 2010-11 census is 1.54 hectares, that of Joint type of holdings is 1.85 hectares and for Institutional type of it is 5.78 hectares. But in 2005-06 census, wherein the average size of the Individual type of holdings was 1.63 hectares, Joint type of holdings was 1.57 hectares and Institutional type was 4.87 hectares. It may be observed that the average size of the Institutional type of holdings in both the censuses were higher as compared to Individual type and Joint type of holdings, because of fewer number of holdings coming under Institutional category.
  17. During the first Agricultural Census 1970- 71, the number of operational holdings, which was 35.51 lakhs, has increased over 121 per cent compared to the Ninth Agricultural Census 2010- 11 figure of 78.32 lakh holdings.
  18. The trend in area operated since the first Agriculture Census 1970-71, shows slight decrease of 0.1 per cent during 1976-77 census. Increasing trend was observed during the subsequent three censuses 1980-81, 1985-86 and 1990-91 and once again in 1995-96 census, it fell marginally by 1.7 per cent and increase by 1.6 and 0.6 percent during 2000-01 and 2005-06 census respectively. And it marginally fell by 1.8 per cent during 2010- 11 census. Pertaining to the area operated during the first census 1970-71 is 113.68 lakh hectares, and increased to 121.61 lakh hectares during 2010-11 census with an increase of about 6.98 percent.
  19. The trend of average size of operational holdings was gradually decreasing at every census period. It may be noted that the average size of operational holdings, which was 3.20 hectares in the first Agricultural Census 1970-71 has decreased to 1.55 hectares during 2010-11 census, indicating shortfall of 52 percent.

 

Climate: Climate plays a decisive role in determining the prospects of agriculture. Karnataka receives majority of its rainfall from South-west monsoon winds. The rainfall is usually concentrated in the months of June-September. This helps for the growth of Kharif crops. Southern districts of Karnataka also receive rainfall from retreating North-East monsoon winds in the month of October and November which aids the sowing of Rabi crops. But the amount of rainfall received is less when compared with South-West monsoon winds.

 

Agro-climatic Zones: The planning commission of India has divided the country into 15 agro climatic zones for the purpose of evolving a best strategy to improve agricultural productivity. Out of 15 zones, Karnataka falls in Zone X (southern plateau and hilly region) and Zone XII (west coast plain and ghat region). The state in an exercise between the Department of Agriculture and the University of Agricultural Sciences came up with 10 agro-climatic zones based on the following criteria (a) Rainfall pattern, quantum and distribution (b) Soil types, texture, depth and physico-chemical properties (c) Elevation and topography and (d) Major crops and vegetation. The ten gro-climatic regions of Karnataka are: North Eastern Transition Zone, North Eastern Dry Zone, Northern Dry Zone, Central Dry Zone, Eastern Dry Zone, Southern Dry Zone, Southern Transition Zone, Northern Transition Zone, Hilly Zone and Coastal Zone.

 

CROPPING PATTERN

Major crops grown are grouped as cereals, pulses, oilseeds and cash crops. Agricultural crops are grown in three seasons viz. Kharif (71 lakh ha.), Rabi (33 lakh ha.) and summer (six lakh ha.) in an area of about 110 lakh hectares. Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugarcane and Tobacco account for 49 per cent, 25 per cent, 15 per cent, five per cent, five per cent and one per cent respectively of the total agricultural cropped area. Paddy is one of the major cereal crops of the State. It is predominantly grown in Shivamogga, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada, Raichur, Koppal, Mysuru, Dharwad, Gadag and Haveri districts. It was grown in 14.15 lakh ha during 2011-12. Area under this crop increased from 13.53 lakh ha (1997-98) to 14.15 lakh ha. It is cultivated in all the three seasons i.e. Kharif, rabi and Summer.

 

Jowar is another major cereal crop grown largely in northern districts. Kalaburgi, Raichur, Koppal, Belagavi, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Ballari, Davanagere and Bidar districts account for nearly 90 per cent of the area under the crop. About 11.38 lakh ha was under this crop during 2011-12. It is predominantly grown in Rabi season.

 

Ragi is largely grown in southern districts of the State. Predominant ragi growing districts are Bengaluru Rural, Tumakuru, Hassan, Chitradurga, Mysuru, Chamarajnagar, Kolar and Mandya. About 6.85 lakh ha of area was under this crop during 2011-12. Maize and bajra occupied 13.52 lakh ha and 2.87 lakh ha respectively during 2011- 12. Farmers are showing marked interest in the cultivation of maize which is evident from figures of 2011-12. These two crops are largely grown in northern districts of the State. Wheat, another important food crop, is grown in the rabi season.

 

It is also largely grown in northern districts of the State. About 2.21 lakh ha of area was under this crop during 2011-12.

 

Red gram (tur) is one of the major pulse crops grown in the Kharif season in the State. Kalaburgi, Raichur, Koppal and Bidar districts accounted for 70 per cent of the area under this crop in the State. It is mainly grown in rain fed areas. About 7.68 lakh ha of area was under this crop during 2011-12. About 30 per cent of area under pulses was covered by Red gram crop. Bengal gram is one of the important pulse crop grown in the rabi season. Kalaburgi, Bidar, Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri and Belagavi districts accounted for 86 per cent of area under this crop in the State. About 7.97 lakh ha of area was under this crop during 2011-12.

 

Groundnut is an important crop of the State largely grown in Tumakuru, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Kalaburgi, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Raichur, Koppal, Bagalkot and Vijayapura districts. These districts accounted for 69 per cent of the area under this crop. About 6.78 lakh ha was under this crop during 2011-12. About 48 per cent of the area under oilseeds was covered by groundnut only.

 

Sesamum is another oilseed crop of the State grown in the Kharif season in rain fed condition only. Kalaburgi, Bidar, Koppal and Raichur accounted for 58 per cent of area under this crop. About 0.62 lakh ha was under this crop during 2011-12. Sunflower is an important oilseed crop grown in Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Raichur, Koppal, Kalaburgi, Ballari, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Davanagere and Chitradurga districts. These districts accounted for 84 per cent of the area under this crop. This crop was grown in 3.76 lakh ha during 2011-12.

 

Safflower is another important oilseed crop grown in the rabi season in rain fed areas. Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Kalaburgi, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Belagavi, Koppal and Raichur districts had a major share under this crop. Cotton is an important fibre crop of the State. Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Ballari, Belagavi, Koppal and Raichur districts are the principal growing areas. About 5.7 lakh ha of area was under this crop during 2011-12.

 

Rainfed Farming

The first challenge posing the agriculture sector in Karnataka is to mainstream the vast drought prone/rainfed area. In India, out of 142 million ha of arable lands, 60 per cent (5.2 million ha) is rainfed. Karnataka has the second largest area under rainfed agriculture after Rajasthan in the Country with around 120 lakh hectares. Crop yields in rainfed areas are quite low (one to oneand half tonnes per hectare).

 

Current rainwater use efficiency in rainfed agriculture varies between 35-45 per cent. Rainfed/ dryland areas confront harsh environment and economic hardship. The basic problem of rainfed areas is one of a vicious cycle that starts with low water availability, degradation of natural resource base because of poor management which ultimately results in low productivity.

 

This, in turn, leads to over-exploitation of the existing natural resources and causes further degradation. The vast potential of rainfed agriculture could be unlocked by using available scientific technologies including improved cultivars. Crops like jowar, ragi, maize, groundnut, sunflower, pulses, oilseeds and some horticulture crops can be grown by adopting scientific strategy. The vast opportunities existing in dryland areas can be harnessed for improving rural livelihoods.

 

AGRICULTURE INPUTS

 

Fertilizer: Fertilizer forms the major agricultural input to increase the production and productivity. According to agricultural scientists, different types of fertilizers like NPK, urea etc. should be used in a balanced proportion to maintain the productivity of the soil. Consumption of NPK in chemical fertilizers during the last 4 years is presented in table 4.09. The state government also maintains a buffer stock of fertilizers to overcome the scarcity of fertilizers at crucial periods.

 

Due to the high cost of chemical fertilizers, the development and use of organic manures assumes great importance. Bio-fertilizers like Rhizobium, Blue green algae, Azatobacter and Azospirillum are being popularised among farming community. Organic farming has gained popularity among the farming community in recent times due to its environment friendly farming practices and increased production.

 

SEEDS: Seed us an important component in crop husbandry. The State Agricultural Universities are basically responsible for the production and supply of breeder seeds of different crops. There are 53 seed farms in the State. Of these, 42 seed farms are under the control of Department of Agriculture and 11 under Zilla Panchayat. The foundation seeds produced in the departmental farms were being handed over to the Karnataka State Seed Corporation for processing and further multiplication. The role of the private seed industry has been well recognised and they have been provided with all the facilities. Many multinational Companies are also engaged in seed production. There are two seed testing laboratories, one at Hebbal and another at Dharwad. There is one more seed testing laboratory at Lalbagh, Bengaluru under the control of the Horticulture department.

 

Agricultural Implements –Farm Mechanization: Use of implements is one of the important components in agriculture. It helps the farmers to overcome the problem of scarcity of Agricultural Labourers. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Farm Mechanization Programme was being implemented under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan) since 2001-02 upto 2012- 13. Under this scheme, 25 per cent subsidy is provided as per the assistance norms indicated by Government of India. From 2003-04 as per the State Government announcement, the rate of subsidy was increased to 50 per cent with the State share of 25 per cent in addition to the Central share of 25 per cent. From 2008-09 Central fund under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan) is used as a matching grant to State fund. After exhausting the Central fund, the entire 50% subsidy for farm machineries is borne by the State fund. From 2013-14, the Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan) will not be implemented as per the Govt. of India Guidelines.

 

Farm Mechanization Programme is also implemented as Karnataka Farm Mechanization Mission under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana. The total allocation for Farm Mechanization Programme for the Year 2013-14 is Rs.29252.90 lakhs. 50 per cent subsidy is provided for the general category farmers and 90 per cent subsidy is provided for the farmers belonging to Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe farmers. The main objective of the scheme is to popularize mechanized farming in order to reduce drudgery in farm operations, labour use, to save time and to cover more area in short span of time. Mechanized farming helps to increase efficiency in farming operations and ultimately results in higher production and productivity.

 

ORGANIC FARMING: Organic farming is a technique to build up soil fertility for sustainable production, mainly using local and natural resources and with least external inputs. Production and protection of crops mainly depend on indigenous wisdom modified to latest scientific techniques. Organic farming aims at reducing the cost of production and helps farmers to get more returns. Organic agriculture includes all agriculture systems that promote the environmentally, socially and economically sound production of food and fibers. These systems take local soil fertility as a key to successful production. Organic farming is chemical free agriculture. Hence, organic farming is a holistic approach.

 

In the process of attaining higher levels of food production to keep pace with population growth during the past four decades, emphasis was laid on intensive agriculture practices. Thus, on one hand we achieved self-sufficiency in food production but on the other hand soil became sick, underground water depleted, environment polluted, cost of production increased and this led to presence of chemical residues in food products causing hazards to human beings and animals besides rendering the soils problematic due to soil salinization, alkalization, water logging. Micro nutrient deficiency and decline in soil organic matter content has resulted in reduced water holding capacity, destruction of soil structure, decline in beneficial soil flora and fauna.

 

In Karnataka more than 75 percent of the cultivated area is still under rain-fed condition. The State is encountering drought conditions frequently in the recent times. Hence to address all these problems and to stabilize and increase the agriculture production especially in rain-fed and drought prone areas, Government of Karnataka has brought out State Policy on Organic Farming during March 2004 to promote Organic Farming in the state.

 

Main objectives of the Policy are to enhance soil fertility and productivity of soils, reduce the cost of production, improve farmers’ income through production of quality produce, increase the food security by encouraging the traditional crops, reduce the debt burden of farmers and enable to achieve sustenance and self-respect, make environment safe and pollution free besides protecting health of human beings and animals, increase rural employment opportunities, facilitate farmers’ Self Help Groups for most of their requirements, and equip farmers to effectively mitigate the impact of droughts. Among the various objectives of the policy, equipping the farmers to effectively mitigate the drought situation in rain fed and drought prone areas is one of the major objectives.

 

The strategies adopted by the state for promotion of Organic Farming in the State are Integrated and holistic approach for the promotion of Organic Farming in the State, Integration of different Developmental programmes and implementation under “Single Window Approach”, Implementation of programmes through Farmers’ Associations/ Farmers’ Clubs/ Farmers’ Companies/ Farmers Co-operatives/ Self Help Groups/ Non- Government Organisations, Area approach/ Commodity approach/ Crop approach, Encouragement for Bio-mass production, Biodiversity and Mixed Farming, Soil and Water conservation practices including rain water harvesting, Assistance for organic inputs, Assistance for value addition, on-farm processing, storage, marketing, Assistance for organic produce processing industry and export promotion, Conversion and certification of Organic farms, Research and Development in Organic Farming, Training, extension, study tours, publicity and propaganda, Organic Farming syllabus in primary/ secondary education, Eco-tourism.

 

Model organic farming village/site programme: As a first step towards promotion of organic farming in the State and as envisaged in Organic farming policy, Model organic village / site programme is being implemented in the state since 2004-05. In the first phase the programme was implemented at district level and later on it was extended to taluk level and from the year 2011-12 the programme has been extended to other Hoblis of all the 176 taluks of the state and is presently under implementation. Under this programme an area of 100ha. is being converted to Model Organic Farm (which would take a minimum of three years to develop as an ideal organic site). Since several NGOs are pioneered in popularizing Organic Farming amongst the farming community in the State, the programme is being implemented in association with the NGOs.

 

Organic Mission Programmes: To give maximum thrust to organic farming, the State government during 2008-09 constituted a state level organic farming mission empowered committee. The committee includes 14 progressive farmers as members including the chairman and nine senior officials of the state government. Under organic mission programme, 174 registered organic farmers associations have been selected in 172 taluks. Through these associations 300 farmers (beneficiaries) have been identified in each taluk and a total of 52,200 farmers have been brought under the programme and around 71,000 ha area is under conversion to organic cultivation. Later on around 35,200 additional new farmers are being brought under the organic mission programme.

 

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:

 

Karnataka Seed Mission: Seed is an important and crucial agricultural input. The Karnataka Seed Mission Scheme is being implemented in the State since 2008-09 under RKVY. Important components like achieving crop productivity through seed replacement rate, identifying seed requirement and production and infrastructure facilities have been included to strengthen Certified Seed Production and Certified Seed distribution programmes in the state. The objectives of the scheme are: To achieve enhancement in agricultural productivity through increased SRR and Comprehensive Development of all facts of seed sector in Karnataka through a mission mode approach, To make Karnataka a Global Destination for seed production, To identify gaps in seed requirement, production and infrastructure for quality seed production and marketing, To have formers centric approach in varietal development, seed production and marketing.

 

National Food Security Mission: The National Food Security Mission (NFSM), a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2007- 08 is in operation in 480 districts of 18 important rice,wheat and pulses growing states in the country. Its objective is to increase production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10 million, 8 million and 2 million respectively. In Karnataka NFSM was launched under two components namely NFSM (Rice) and NFSM (Pulses). Belagavi, Dakshin Kannada, Hassan, Raichur, Shivamogga, Udupi and Uttara Kannada comes under NFSM (Rice) while NFSM(Pulses) is implemented in all the districts. For speedy implementation of the pulse development, accelerated pulses production programme is being implemented from 2010-11 under NFSM (Pulses).

 

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY): This scheme was launched in 2007-08 as an important programme of 11th five year plan. States are allocated funds to improve their agriculture and allied activities. For the year 2011-12, an amount of Rs.595.90 crore was allocated and funds were utilized for implementation of the schemes related to Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Agricultural Marketing, Sericulture, University of Agricultural Science (Bengaluru, Dharwad and Raichur), Karnataka State Seeds Corporation and other Departments/Institution. During 2013-14 an amount of Rs.794.68 crore has been sanctioned for implementation of various schemes & sub-schemes of RKVY.

 

Integrated Scheme for Oilseeds, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM): ISOPOM is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for the development of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize implemented since 2004-05(10th five year plan). The main objective of ISOPOM is to increase production and attain sustainability in these crops. w.e.f April 2010 Pulses have been included under NFSM. The sharing pattern between centre and state is in the ratio 75:25. In Karnataka the Scheme is being implemented in all the 30 districts. Under this Scheme, the provision of 50 per cent subsidy is extended to distribute certified seeds, inputs which are necessary for Block Demonstration, IPM and FFS Demonstrations viz., Rhizobium/ PSB, NPV, Gypsum/Pyrites and micronutrients, water convey pipes, Plant Protection chemicals and Plant Protection equipment.

 

Bhoo Chetana: Bhoo Chetana is a novel mission mode, science based project implemented by Government of Karnataka since 2009-10 to increase the productivity of selected rainfed crops by 20 per cent in four years. Initially it was implemented in 16 districts and now has been extended to all the 30 districts of the state. ICRISAT, Watershed Development Department and three State Agriculture Universities are consortium partners.

 

For the year 2012-13, Bhoochetana programme will cover the target area of 50 lakh hectare in rainfed area and 5 lakh hectare in irrigated area (irrigated paddy and sugarcane). About 42 lakh farmers have been registered under this programme. Along with technical message, required micronutrients, Gypsum, Biofertilizers and other inputs are made available to farmers at cluster village level at 50 per cent subsidy in 747 Raitha Samparka Kendras, 4,953 cluster villages with the services of 9,711 Farmer facilitators and 48,500 lead farmers. About 8,900 Farmer Field Schools were conducted successfully for transfer of production technology to farmers. It is proposed to capitalise on the success of the first phase of the Boochetana project and convert into Boochetana phase -2. Boochetana phase-2 will be implemented for five years (2013-14 to 2017-18). All 30 districts of the State will be covered. Department of Agriculture is the nodal department.

 

Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane: Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane Scheme is being implemented from the year 2011-12. The objective of this scheme is to give incentive to farmers to shift from low income crops to high income crops namely, Pulses, Oil seeds and Bt cotton. The incentive is also extended to other activities namely, Bio fuel, Horticulture, Apiculture, Sericulture and Organic Farming. 10 lakh small and marginal farmers including two lakh SC and one lakh ST farmers will be given Rs. 10,000 for maximum of two acres in two equal instalments of Rs. 5,000 each through banks to take up the proposed activity and thereby improving the economic status of those small and marginal farmers. The incentives are given only for rainfed area farmers and the catchment area farmers are not eligible to get the incentives of this scheme. An amount of Rs.1,000 crore is allocated for this scheme.

 

Initiative for Nutritional Security through Intensive Millets Promotion Programme (INSIMP): This new initiative was started by GOI during 2011-12 to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies for millets in an integrated manner. Considering the fact that millets are the major food crops in Karnataka covering an area of 23 lakh ha but the current yield is less than the potential, this programme becomes significant to fill the gap. During 2011-12, in Kharif season this programme was implemented in 15 districts i.e., Bengaluru(U), Bagalkot, Belagavi, Ballari, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Haveri, Tumakuru, Vijayapura, Chamarajanagara, Raichur, Dharwad, Gadag, Koppal and Gulburga in Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Foxtail Millet and Little Millet covering an area of 47,360 hectares and 47,896 farmers. In Rabi season the programme was implemented in five districts i.e., Bidar, Chitradurga, Gadag, Dharwad and Koppal in Rabi Jowar crop covering area of 11,000 hectares and 10,900 farmers.

 

INSIMP programme was effectively implemented in the state through supply of free input kit and seed minikit to the farmers, five days Training regarding production technologies, steps taken for setting up of 300 post-harvest technologies centers at 20 Krushi Vignana Kendras and private enterpreneures and seven millet melas organised for creating awareness on millet nutrition by three state agricultural universities. Govt. of India has provided budget outlay of Rs.26.57 crore under RKVY for the year 2011-12 and Rs. 25.94 crore expenditure has been made under this Scheme. Allocation for the year 2013-14 is Rs.13.50 crore.

 

Raitha Samparka Kendra (RSK): The Department of Agriculture under “Raitha Mitra Yojane” established 747 Raitha Samparka Kendras (RSKs), one per Hobli to provide services and information at single point required by the farmers. These are the knowledge centres for the farmers that provide information on inputs, farm practices and market intelligence. Based on the various agro climatic zones of the state, the new food production technologies and skills are being implemented in the farmers’ field aiming to increase the state food production levels under this scheme. Bi-monthly and fortnightly, primary and secondary training sessions, are built in the system to continuously upgrade and update the professional skills of the extension workers.

 

Facilities available at RSK include, Seed sample testing (Rs five per sample), Soil sample testing (Rs three per sample), Rentals for the space to stock and sale agricultural inputs by the public sector and private sector companies (Rs 100 per month), Rentals for the space used for demonstration purpose by the public sector and private sector companies (Rs 300 per plot for a period of four months), Rentals for promotional activities conducted in the premises of the RSK’s by the public sector and private sector companies (Rs 100 per day per event). Service charges for sale of seeds and other inputs are collected at the RSK.

 

Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA): Agricultural Technology Management Agency is an autonomous body with a focal point for integrating research and extension activities and decentralizing day to day management of the public agricultural technology system.

 

The ATMA at district level would be increasingly responsible for all the technology dissemination activities at the district level. It would have linkage with all the line departments, research organizations, non-governmental organizations and agencies associated with agricultural development in the district. Research and Extension units within the project districts such as Zonal research stations (ZRS) or substations, Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and the key line Departments of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture and Fisheries etc., would become constituent members of ATMA. Each Research Extension(R- E) unit would retain its institutional identity and affiliation but programmes and procedures concerning district -wise R- E activities would be determined by ATMA Governing Board to be implemented by its Management Committee (MC).

 

There are committees like INTERDEPARTMENTAL WORKING GROUP (IDWG) at State level, District ATMA steering committee at district level, ATMA implementation committee at taluk level and farmers’ advisory committees at state, district and taluk level for implementation of this scheme.

 

The Scheme is being implemented in the State since 2005. The revised Scheme shall focus on the key extension reforms as objectives of the Scheme. The objectives are Providing innovative and restructured technologies by an autonomous agency through institutions at State/District/ Block levels, Encouraging multi agency extension strategies involving Public/Private Extension service providers, Ensuring an integrated, broad-based extension delivery mechanism consistent with framing systems approach, Adopting group approach to extension in line with identified needs and requirements of the farmers in the form of the CIGs and FIGs, Facilitating convergence of programmes in planning, execution and implementation, Addressing gender concerns by mobilizing farm women into groups and providing training to them and Moving towards sustainability of extension services through beneficiary contribution.

 

Relief Schemes: The government of Karnataka provide Rs.One lakh as relief to the families of the farmers committing suicide on account of the heavy burden of loan. Budgetary provision of Rs.100 lakh provided during 2013-14 and Rs.54 lakh has been distributed up to end of December 2013. Government also provide Rs.one lakh as a relief to farmers/agricultural labourers due to accidental death from snake bites, fall from trees and other accidental death while doing agricultural activities and up to Rs.10,000 for loss of fodder/hay from fire accidents. A budget provision of Rs.500 lakh has been provided during 2013-14 and Rs.499.68 lakh has been distributed up to the end of October 2013.

 

Kisan Call Centres: Agriculture sector needs constant and continuous back end support to make it a profitable and sustainable field. Kisan call centres have helped to fulfil this necessity in the country. In view of the fast development of communication network in the Country Government of India dedicated Kisan Call Centres with Toll free telephone no.1800-180-1551 to the nation on 21st Jan. 2004, to enable the farmers for easy and instant access of information on the problems related to the crops, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides commodity prices, veterinary etc. The Kisan Call Centre consists functionaries at three levels. Level-I includes the basic call centre interface, with high quality bandwidth telecom and local language proficient Agriculture graduates. At Level-II Subject Matter Specialists located in State Agricultural Universities, Agricultural Department, Horticulture department, Animal Husbandry Department, Marketing Department, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Central Silk Board etc answer the calls diverted by the level-I functionaries. Level-III includes the Management Group to ensure ultimate answering and resolution of all the farmer’s queries which are not resolved at Level-II. In Karnataka Kissan call centre is located in Bengaluru (The Karnataka State Co-operative, Agriculture and Rural Development Bank premises, Tipu Sultan Palace Road, Chamarajpet, Bengaluru-18).

 

Raita Sahayavani Kendra (Farmers Helpline Centre): The Department of Agriculture has started a farmers help line called “Raita Sahayavani Kendra” to provide information regarding agriculture and allied subjects to farming community in local lanaguage. With this objective, farmers are facilitated to make toll free calls vide Phone No.1800 425 3553. This centre functions from 7.00 am to 9.00 pm on all days on rotation basis under two shifts. Two subject matter specialists are entrusted to receive and provide information to the farmer. On an average 50 calls are received per day.

 

Krishi Vigyan Kendras: The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi has started the Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in all the districts of the country for Conducting “Onfarm testing” for identifying technologies in terms of location specific and sustainable land use systems, Organize training to update the extension personnel with emerging advances on regular basis, Organizing short and long term vocational training courses in agricultural and allied vocations for the farmers and rural youth with emphasis on “Learning by doing” for higher production on farms and generating selfemployment and to Organize front line demonstration on various crops to generate production data and feedback information as mandate. Presently thirty-one KVKs are functioning in Karnataka under various agricultural and horticultural universities.

 

Minimum Support Price (MSP): Minimum Support Prices for various crops are fixed by the Government of India on the recommendation of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices. Procurement of commodities is undertaken by Food Corporation of India, NAFED, KOF etc. in the event of price crash below MSP. Minimum Floor Price Scheme is operated in Karnataka for perishable agriculture commodities like onion, potato, tomato and green chillies. The agricultural Marketing Department arranges the procurement of these commodities through HOPCOMS in districts/taluks after the sanction of cabinet subcommittee.

 

Karnataka Krishi Mission (KKM): For the comprehensive development of agriculture and allied activities, “Karnataka Agriculture Mission” is formulated under the chairmanship of Honourable Chief Minister. The objectives of the KKM are to induct new ideas, sensitize and develop new plans, projects and programmes for agriculture and agriculture related universities and line departments related to agriculture, streamlining and coordinating the functions of line departments viz., agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and veterinary services, sericulture and fisheries etc., including agriculture and agriculture related universities in the State to provide technical information and services from a single window, bring new policies and guidelines which can improve the farm productivity to the level 4.5 percent per annum and also increase the income level of farmers by convergence of line departments, drafting new programmes for sustainable agriculture, conservation of natural resources like land, water and improving the fertility of soil and water use efficiency, promotion of organic farming, intensify training to the farmers in modern agriculture including marketing, to provide infrastructure for seed storage,water harvesting and water use efficiency, processing and value addition to the farmers through commodity groups, promoting integrated farming approach to increase the income of the farmers even under rainfed conditions, guiding universities for professional and para-professional human resources for changing situations in agriculture, providing utmost priority for seed production in field and horticulture crops, planting material, animal poultry and fish breeds and seed production, establishment of market extension departments in UAS, Bengaluru, Dharwad, Raichur and Shivamogga, University of Horticultural sciences, Bagalkot, and Karnataka veterinary animal and fisheries sciences university, Bidar with coordination of Govt line departments, establishing of pilot centres of reclaiming saline and alkaline soils for improving productivity of crops at a required time and initiating survey to identify farmers who have done extremely well to generate more income, more than Rs. two lakh/ acre under rainfed conditions and more than Rs. 50000/acre under rainfed to bring their practices to mainline research of the agricultural universities for validating and recommending through line departments for adoption by all other farmers.

 

Agri Business in Karnataka: Karnataka has taken the initiative in developing sustainable agribusiness through the ‘Integrated Agribusiness Development Policy’ which covering agriculture and allied sectors (like horticulture, fisheries, animal husbandry, sericulture and food processing) both in infrastructure and industrial segments. This policy is expected to address key concerns affecting the agricultural growth and allied sectors like improving productivity, minimizing postharvest losses, enhancing postharvest processing and value addition, enhancing value realization through better marketing channels, sustainable practices in production, processing, branding and, marketing. Government of Karnataka has taken progressive steps in identifying land banks for sustained industrialization and infrastructure development of the State. Investors are welcome to locate their units and infrastructure facilities either in earmarked industrial parks, SEZs or industrial estates so as to leverage on cluster advantages. Karnataka is leading in terms of production of horticulture crops. It’s varied agro-climatic regions and a cosmopolitan centre like Bengaluru provides it with immense opportunities for developing agribusiness in the state.

 

Crop Insurance: First crop insurance scheme was presented to the parliament by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, as the First Minister for Agriculture of independent India in 1948. Subsequently, the Government of India in March 1970, prepared a draft of the model scheme. An Expert Committee chaired by Dr Dharm Narain examined its feasibility. The Committee did not favour introduction of crop insurance. However, General Insurance Corporation of India offered the scheme of crop insurance in 1972 on its own. In 1976 Prof Dandekar suggested an alternative approach linking crop insurance with crop loan. This was initially introduced in three states in 1978 on a pilot basis. Later on a Pilot Crop Insurance scheme with modifications was launched as Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme (CCIS) throughout the country in 1985. The scheme was voluntary in nature in the initial phase but was made compulsory for institutional loanees but failed to provide the needed protection to the vulnerable. Followed by this, Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana (RKBY) was launched formally in 1999. The participation in RKBY was compulsory for farmers growing notified crops and availing crop loans from formal credit institutions. However, non-borrower farmers growing notified crops were also eligible to opt for the Scheme on voluntary basis.

 

Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana (RKBY): Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana is being implemented in the state since Kharif 2000 by the State Government with the co-ordination of Central Government. The objectives of this scheme is to provide financial support and reimburse the insured amount to the farmers in case of loss of notified crops due to natural calamities, pests and diseases, to encourage farmers to adopt latest technology and use quality seeds and also stabilize the Agricultural income during the scarcity related years. Subsidy to an extent of 10 per cent is provided on premium paid by small and marginal farmers.

 

Crops under rainfed and irrigated conditions notified in all the three seasons at hobli level are as follows: Paddy, maize, jowar, ragi, bajra, navane, saave, blackgram, tur, greengram, horsegram, soyabean, sunflower, sesamum, castor, groundnut, cotton, wheat, Bengal gram, linseed, sunflower, safflower, potato and onion.

 

Weather based Crop Insurance Scheme: The objective of this scheme is to provide protection against the notified crop loss due to floods, famine, storm, frost, temperature and change in relative humidity which occur due to weather aberations. This scheme is implemented in 17 districts of the state during kharif 2013. They are Bengaluru (Rural), Bagalkote, Belagavi, Ballari, Bidar, Vijayapura, Chikkamagaluru, Davanagere, Dharwad, Gadag, Hassan, Haveri, Kolar, Koppal, Raichur, Ramanagara and Yadagiri. The different crops notified are Ragi (Rainfed), Maize (Rainfed), Jowar (Rainfed),Tur (Rainfed), Blackgram (Rainfed),Greengram (Rainfed), Soyabean (Rainfed), Sunflower (Rainfed), Groundnut (Rainfed), Onion (Rainfed, Irrigated), cotton (Rainfed and irrigated),Potato (Rainfed and irrigated),Chillies (Rainfed and irrigated),Grapes and Banana, the crops are notified at hobli level.

 

Modified National Agricultural Crop Insurance Scheme: Central Government has introduced some of the modifications in Rasthriya Krishi Bima Yojana and it is called as modified Rashtria Krishi Bima Yojana. This modified scheme is being implemented in Kalaburgi, Shivamogga, Tumakuru and Uttara Kannada districts. Crop loss due to localized natural calamities such as hailstorm and landsliding, is estimated on individual basis. The crop loss is reimbursed as per the guidelines of the schemes. In coastal areas, the crop is left on the ground for two to three days for drying after the harvest of the crop. If there is a loss of crop due to storm during this period, the loss considered and the insured amount will be according to the norms of the scheme.

 

The important crops are notified at Grama Panchayat level under this scheme, the crops notified are Rice (Irrigated and Rainfed), Maize (Irrigated and Rainfed),and Groundnut (Rainfed), Jowar (Irrigated and Rainfed), Raji (Irrigated and Rainfed), Bajra (Rainfed), Navane (Rainfed), Savae (Rainfed), Blackgram (Rainfed), Greengram (Rainfed), Horsegram (Rainfed) , Soyabean (Rainfed),Sunflower (Irrigated and Rainfed),Sesamum (Rainfed), Castor (Rainfed), Cotton (Irrigated and Rainfed), Chillies(Irrigated and Rainfed), and Onion (Rainfed) crops have been notified at Hobli level.

 

“KRISHI KARMAN” award: Karnataka State was awarded “KRISHI KARMAN” award for having achieved its highest ever production of Coarse Cereals during 2010-11. Though the area under coarse cereals had been declining, the State has maintained a higher productivity level in last one decade irrespective of the frequent droughts. The area under all the coarse cereals (Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi and minor millets) has declined from 40 lakh hectares in 2000-01 to 36.50 lakh hectares during 2010-11, but the production has reached 78.45 lakh tonnes from 59 lakh tonnes with one and half time jump in the productivity per hectare (i.e. from 15.5 quintals to 21.7 quintals). Karnataka is leading producer of Maize in the Country.

 

At the same time, overall production of food grains has increased to 139.86 lakh tonnes during 2010-11 which is higher than the earlier record production of 120.49 lakh tonnes during 2007-08. Further, production of pulses has gone up from mere nine lakh tonnes (2000-01) to 15.65 lakh tonnes (2010-11) with just an addition of about 7.4 lakh hectares in the area under pulses (from 20.47 lakh ha. in 2000-01 to 27.91 lakh ha. in 2010-11).

 

Apart from highest production of Coarse Cereals, the State was recognized for effective promotion of agricultural technologies and services adopted by the farmers which resulted in significant production gains. Notable initiatives of the State Government included “Bhoo-Chetana” programme for improving crop productivity in rain fed area; improving seed replacement rate; strengthening extension work through farmers’ facilitators; promoting public private partnership in adoption of hybrid Maize, up scaling Raitha Samparka Kendras to ensure timely supply of inputs.

Krishi Prashasthi Programme: Phenomenal increase in agriculture production in the state during the last three decades is due to the active participation and efforts of farmers. In order to recongnise such farmers, who have done outstanding work in different aspects of agricultural production, awards are given under “Krishi Prashasthi Scheme” at the State, District and Taluk levels. The programme is being implemented since 1992-93. The programme envisages the award of three prizes at these three levels for selected crops. The prize amount for different competition levels for each crop is as follows.

 

Krishi Pandit Prashasthi Programme: Krishi Pandit Prashasthi programme is being implemented since 2001-02. Main objective of the programme is to recognise the farmers at state level who are contributing for the welfare of the farming community through their innovations and constructive work in the field of agriculture. Such persons are being awarded with cash prize. The first prize is Rs.1,00,000/-, second prize is Rs.50,000/- and third prize is Rs.25,000/-. The important four fields recognised for the cash prize are 1.Effecient use of water, 2. Organic farming, 3. Development of farm implements and 4. Integrated farming system and Diversification of crops.

 

HORTICULTURE

Horticulture is a significant and upcoming sector in Karnataka. Horticulture has proved to be the best diversification option for agricultural land use, because of assured and the remunerative returns to the farmers. The diverse agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the state are quite congenial for growing different Horticulture crops successfully, almost throughout the year, the usefulness of Horticulture has been specially felt in scanty rainfall and drought prone areas of the State, as several perennial Horticulture crops provide an effective drought proofing against the odds of the nature and assure the farmers satisfactory returns even during the years of deficit rainfall. This is the reason why horticulture crops are fast replacing agriculture crops in dry tracts of the state. Another important benefit that the farmers can avail is related to value addition of several horticulture produce, which offers very good scope for meeting the needs of different strata of consumers. With the onset of protected cultivation and consequent high quality produce, the horizons of export have greatly been expanded, offering unlimited scope to hi-tech farmers in the state, Of late, in response to the increasing awareness for nutritional security, consumption of protective food such as fruits and vegetables has greatly increased and this has helped to hike the production process. The aesthetic needs of the people are also warranting for expanding the demands for flowers and their products, resulting in an incredible boost for floriculture, be traditional or hi-tech. With all these developments that are taking place, the horticulture in the state has opened new vistas of hopes and bright future for the farmers of the state.

 

Historical Background

The growth of Horticulture in the state has a thrilling historical background, which reveals several interesting facts, milestones of achievements and pride legacies. Although some Horticulture crops were grown in the State since time immemorial, their cultivation on commercial scale started just two and a half century before, the first acknowledgeable credit for initiation of cultivation of Horticulture crops in the state undoubtedly goes to Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. During 1760, Hyder Ali started a small royal orchard near Bengaluru Fort, which was called by the name Lalbagh. After him, Tippu Sultan improved this garden by making systematic layouts and undertaking comprehensive planting programme. He collected several important native and exotic species of flowers, fruits, vegetables and the plants obtained from several far off places such as Malacca, Isle of France, Oman Arabia, Persia, Turkey, Zanzibar, France and other European countries. At Srirangapatna, his capital, he had established another garden of fame by the same name as Lalbagh, in which also he had introduced several ornamental and horticulture plants. At Ganjam, near Srirangapatna, he had developed a vast Fig orchard, Several of the fruits species, which Tipu Sultan had introduced then, eventually became the commercial crops of the then Mysuru province, and to quote a few are: Fig, Mulberry (for sericulture), Grapes, Pomegranate, Rose, several European vegetable crops etc.

 

After the fall of Tipu Sultan in the year 1799, the Lalbagh was taken over by the English and as far as can be traced, it was owned by a military botanist, Major Waugh and remained in his possession until 1819.Then he gifted this garden to the Marques Warren Hastings, the Governor General of the East India Company, who in turn appointed Dr. Wallich, the Superintendent of the Royal Botanical garden, Calcutta, as the in charge Deputy Superintendent of the Lalbagh Botanical gardens. This arrangement continued till 1831. On the British usurpation of the province of Mysuru in 1831, Lalbagh passed into the hands of Sir Mark Cubbon, the Chief Commissioner of Mysuru. In 1839, the affairs of the Lalbagh Botanical Gardens were transferred to the AgriHorticultural Society, Calcutta. The Society ceased to exist in 1842 and the Garden once again came under the management of the Chief Commissioner until 1856.

 

In August 1856, Lalbagh was made the Government Botanical Garden, becoming entirely a government establishment. A committee with the Secretary to the Commissioner, the Superintendent, Bengaluru Division and Dr.Kirkpartick, was set up to take measures to preserve all the interesting botanical species; and to make the garden attractive. Much work was done in the next two years. After a lapse of two years, in 1858, Sir William Hooker, Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, selected Mr.Kew, as the Superintendent of the Lalbagh Botanical Garden.

 

The real developmental works in Lalbagh started from the year 1874, when John Cameron took charge of the garden. Vigorous and systematic introduction and expansion of the garden took place during his tenure. From original area of 45 acres, Lalbagh was expanded to 100 acres by the turn of the 19th century. The renowned Glass House was constructed during his period in 1889. The credit of starting commercial cultivation of several fruits, vegetables and plantation crops, undoubtedly goes to John Cameron. His long term of office from 1874 to 1908, is regarded as the ‘Golden Period’ of plant introductions at Lalbagh.

 

G.H.Krumbiegal assumed the charge of Lalbagh in 1908. He did memorable works in Lalbagh, as well as Mysuru State. Like his predecessor, he also introduced several plant species, including Rome Beauty Apple. He beautified Lalbagh with large number of native and exotic species and gave special impetus to the creation of Park and Gardens in Bengaluru and Mysuru cities, including the famous Brindavan Gardens at Krishnaraja sagara reservoir, near Mysuru. He also started the Mysuru Horticulture Society, in 1912 and through this Society, Started regular Flower Show at Lalbagh. He also opened the Bureau of Economic Plants and Horticulture Training School. He served the Department for memorable 25 Years and retired in the year 1932.

 

H.C.Javaraya took the charge of Lalbagh and Horticulture Development in the Mysuru state in 1932. He was trained in the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew, London. He took up the all-round development of Horticulture in the State. With the establishment of the Fruit Research Station at Hesarghatta, Bengaluru, in 1938, he was able to conduct many adaptive research trials related to various fruit crops. The first Horticulture farm was started at Maddur in 1942 to demonstrate the cultivation of Horticulture crops and production of vegetable seeds and planting material for the farmers.

 

In 1963, consequent to the formation of the separate Department of Horticulture, several schemes were transferred from Agriculture Department to this newly created department. Horticulture Produce Co-operative Marketing Society (HOPCOMS) and Nurserymen’s co-operative society were established. Horticulture farms and nurseries were established and developed as progeny orchards and demonstration centres for new crops and adoption of new horticulture technology. Seed testing, soil testing and plant protection laboratories were started at Lalbhag, Bengaluru. Several parks and gardens were laid out in different cities and towns of the State. The area of Lalbagh Botanical Garden was expanded to 240 acres and planted with additional native and exotic species of plants. Principles and practices of Rainfed horticulture technologies were demonstrated in most of the horticultural farms. This inspired the farmers of the State to practice Rainfed horticulture on vast rainfed and drought prone tracts of the State. The importance of mixed cropping and inter cropping in horticulture areas got special attention of the farming community as these cropping systems assured minimum financial returns. Karnataka is the first State in the entire Country to have a separate Horticulture Department, and many other States, at later years, followed the example of Karnataka.

 

Karnataka occupies a prominent place in the Horticulture map of the country. It has registered a rapid growth in the last decade. The State Government has undertaken several initiatives to bolster the growth in this sector. The major initiatives include a) area expansion programme b) providing micro irrigation c) providing assistance to farmers d) disease and pest management e) mechanization f) postharvest management and marketing and g) providing infrastructure facilities. With the successful implementation of these programmes, area and production of horticultural crops have increased over a time. The Horticulture crops which were grown in an area of 15.80 lakh ha with a total production of over 124.00 lakh tones at the end of VIII plan period has been extended to an area of 19.02 lakh hectares and recorded production of 152.13 lakh tones during the year 2010-11. The total income generated from the horticulture sector accounts to over 40 per cent of the total income derived from the combined agriculture sector. This accounts for 17 per cent of the GDP of the state.

 

Horticulture provides excellent opportunities in raising the income of the farmers even in the rainfed tracts. A significant shift towards horticulture is evident in the state with an increase in area and production. Horticulture provides higher unit productivity and offers great scope for value addition and this sector is taking inroads throughout the length and breadth of the state. Karnataka having the highest acreage under dry farming in the country next only to Rajasthan, has a great potential to grow high value but less water demanding horticultural crops.

 

Major Horticulture Crops: Karnataka is a progressive state in the field of modern horticulture in the country. The diverse agro-ecological conditions prevailing in Karnataka has made it possible to grow different types of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantation crops, root and tuber crops, medicinal and aromatic crops etc. Karnataka ranks 3rd in India in terms of total area under horticulture and 6th in terms of total horticultural production, which accounting for 7.4 per cent of national production during 2010-11. It has the 2nd largest production of flowers (loose) in the country, accounting for 19.8 per cent of the total production. It is also the 5th largest producer of fruit, accounting for 8.4 per cent of the national Production. In terms of vegetables, Karnataka is the 6th largest producer in the country, accounting for 6.2 per cent of the total produce. It ranks 4th in the production of spices in India, accounting for 8.6 per cent of the national production. It stands 3rd in plantation crops in India, accounting for 14.8 per cent of the national production. Karnataka is also the largest producer of coffee in the country.

 

Karnataka is known for production of almost all the fruits produced elsewhere in the country, except apples. Even apples were once cultivated around Bengaluru on commercial scale in the last century. At present, the state is leading in the production of Pomegranates, Fig, Jack, Papayas and Melons. Also, Karnataka is the home of several minor fruits and wild fruits. Further, the fruits grown in the state are being sent to various markets in India and even abroad.

 

Since beginning, Karnataka is spearheading in the field of cultivation of commercial flowers, in the entire country. The area under traditional flowers in the State is about 28,000 hectares and the total production is of the order of about 1.96 lakh tons per annum. The major traditional flowers grown in Karnataka are as follows: Chrysanthemum, Marigold, Crossandra, Open Roses, Jasmine, Aster, Tuberose, Gaillardia and Champaka etc.

 

Although the commercial flowers occupy hardly 1.47 per cent of the total area under horticulture crops in the State, they generate an annual revenue of over 500 crores. This speaks of the high remunerative nature of the commercial flower corps. The average size of holding of the traditional flower crops is hardly half an acre. As many as 50,000 farm families are totally depending on flower trade.

 

The emergence of cultivation of flowers under protected environment is of very recent origin in the State. It started in the early nineties. The first flower that was subjected to protected cultivation was Rose, which is even today the leading cut flower produced in the State. The other cut flowers such as gerbera, carnations, green house chrysanthemums, anthuriums and orchids are also under hi-tech cultivation. In all, there are 30 big units (companies) and 200 small units (farmers) involved in the production of hi-tech cut flowers. The total value of these hi-tech cut flowers is about Rs.50 crores per annum. Hi-tech flower cultivation in India first started in Karnataka during 1960s itself, M/s. Indo American Hybrid Seeds, Bengaluru, started producing flowers in green houses. Perhaps, this is the beginning of hi-tech floriculture in India. This success story paved way for large-scale hi-tech flower production started during 1990s. Even now, Karnataka is leading in hi-tech flower production in the entire country, with a share of about 40 per cent of the total production.

 

The commonly grown major vegetable crops of the state are Onion,Potato, Tomato, Chillies, Brinjal, Bhendi, Carrot, Radish, Beans, Gourds, Leafy vegetables, etc.

 

The Department of Horticulture has the credit of laying out and maintaining several beautiful parks and gardens in the State. The state has a long proud legacy of creating parks and gardens of high fame, since the early days. Bengaluru is regarded as the ‘Garden City’, because of the profusion of beautiful parks and gardens sprawling across its length and breadth. In the city of Mysuru also, a large number of parks and gardens of exquisite beauty have been laid out by the Department. The world famous Bhrindavan garden at Krishanrajasagara, near Mysuru, is known for its enchanting beauty world over. Similarly, in many other cities and towns of the state, a large number of parks and gardens have been established and the people of the state are enjoying the beauty of these gardens.

 

There are two hill stations maintained by the Department of Horticulture in the State. One is Nandi Hill Station in Chikkaballapur district and the other one is Krishnarajendra Hill Station at Kemmannagundi, in Chikkamagalur district. These two locations have an elevation of 4,850 and 4,900 feet from MSL, respectively. These two hill stations have been beautified by the Department of Horticulture, through creation of lush lawns, planting of enchanting annual and perennial flowering and foliage plants and tree species. Required facilities for the pleasant stay of visitors have also been created in both the hill stations.

 

The Government of Karnataka, Department of Horticulture has established a State-of-theArt Biotechnology Centre in the new millennium at Hulimavu Horticultural Farm, Bengaluru. This Centre is the first of its kind in the Country under public sector aiming at integrating many spheres of biotechnology exclusively for the cause of horticultural development. The activities of the centre were dedicated to the nation on 20th January 2001.

 

The main objective of the center is to adopt ecofriendly biotechnological approaches for generating useful inputs and essential services to facilitate overall development of horticultural sector in the state. In this endeavor, facilities and expertise in the areas of conservation and documentation of rare and endangered horticultural varieties including medicinal and aromatic plants, plant propagation, organic horticulture, plant nutrition, sanitary and phytosanitary, quality control, disease diagnosis and human resource development, have been established at this centre.

 

The Tissue Culture Laboratory at Bio-centre Hulimavu is the only public sector unit of its kind in the entire country. The state of the art facilities have been created here for the production of Tissue Culture plants of Banana, Vanilla, Ornamental foliage plants, Orchids, Anthuriums and a score of Aromatic and Medicinal plants. The built in production capacity of this lab is about one million plantlets per year. The Tissue Cultured Banana plants produced in this lab have become extremely popular among the farmers of Karnataka.

 

Karnataka has the richest source of horticultural diversity. Nanjanagud banana, Mysuru betelvine, Udupi jasmines, Coorg oranges are a few examples of Karnataka’s rich genetic diversity. The ecosystems of Western Ghats and deciduous forests of Karnataka are rich in medicinal plant biodiversity with more than 2,500 species of plants.

 

But many of these species are in the verge of extinction due to perceptional changes for maximizing production, mono cropping, destructive harvest and susceptibility to pest and diseases. In order to preserve these land races for posterity, the centre has taken up the challenges of conserving and developing the rare and endangered germplasm under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. More than 500 species of medicinal and aromatic plants, 150 varieties of fruits and flowering plants have been introduced and documented at the generic level by adopting DNA marker technology. More than 80 species of medicinal and aromatic plants of which rare species like Crataeva nervula, Entada puseathea, Garcinia xanthochymus and Garcinia morella and endangered species like Persea macarantha, Symplocos racemosa, Gnetum ula, Myristica malabarica, etc. are conserved and documented. Similarly 85 species of fruits and ornamental plants are added to the germplasm bank of the bio centre.

 

An exclusive sales outlet for the organically produced fruits and vegetables has been opened at Lalbagh, Bengaluru, wherein the producers can sell their safe products to the consumers. The products sold here carry the brand name “Jaivik” and have created great demand among the organic produce lovers of Bengaluru. The Bio-Centre, Hulimavu, which is monitoring this sales outlet, is planning to open another still bigger “Jaivik” produce outlet in Lalbagh, to cater to the needs of ever increasing number of consumers, who have developed awareness and inclination towards safe food.

 

The activity of establishing horticulture farm was intensified after the creation of separate Horticulture Department. At present, totally 415 such horticulture Farms and Nurseries under the Horticulture Department are functioning, spread over all parts of the State.

 

National Horticulture Mission (NHM): It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched during 10th five year plan (2005-06 and 2006-07).It provided cent per cent assistance to the State missions. From 11th Five Year plan onwards (from 2007-08), the Central Government and State Government assistance is fixed at 85:15. This scheme is now being implemented in all the 30 districts in the State.

 

The main objective of introducing the NHM scheme was achieving the all-round development of Horticulture by integrating backward and forward linkages. Its approach is “end to end”, starting from the production of planting material and finally ending with value addition and marketing/ export of produce. The major strategies set for the development of Horticulture through NHM in the State were enhancing both production and productivity of major Horticulture crops, doubling the production, increasing quality of the produce, rejuvenation of the unproductive orchards, rain water harvesting, organic farming, induction of INM and IPM, rejuvenation programmes providing postharvest support, improving marketing, enhancing the technical knowledge and Nutrient management skills of farmers, extension officials and entrepreneurs through an array of HRD programmes.

 

During the year 2013-14, the annual physical target is 10,038 ha and financial target is Rs.1,781.79 lakh for establishment of new horticulture crops like Fruits crops, Plantation crops, Spice crops, Flower crops and Aromatic crops. About 8,647 ha area has been covered with a financial assistance of Rs. 1,522.13 lakh. The total approved Annual Action Plan for the year 2013-14 is Rs.140 crore. During 2013-14 more emphasis is given for Plantation infrastructure, protected cultivation component as well as Post Harvest Management component.

 

Coconut Development Board (CDB): The Coconut Development Board is providing cent per cent financial assistance for the Integrated Development of Coconut Industry in the State. The activities that are being implemented are, 1) laying out of demonstration plots and their maintenance 2) distribution of plant protection chemicals, organic manures, chemical and bio fertilizers for improvement in production and productivity of coconut 3) production of Tall x Dwarf hybrids coconut seedlings. In the year 2012-13, out of total financial allocation of Rs.1,041.25 lakh, Rs.1,048.12 lakh has been released from the CDB and State Government, out of which Rs.1,035 lakh were spent. In 2013-14, out of total financial allocation of Rs. 1,110 lakh, an amount of Rs.991.65 lakh has been released, out of which Rs. 654.39 lakh were spent till the end of December-2013.

 

National Medicinal Plants Mission: Under the National Medicinal plants Mission, action has been taken to expand the area under different medicinal plants.The medicinal plants covered under this scheme in the state include ashwagandha, tulsi, guggal, coleus, amla, gloriana, asparagus, konch, aloevera, bhumi amlaki etc., For the year 2013-14, to implement the programmes like area expansion of medicinal plants, development of nurseries, postharvest management, establishment of processing units, an annual Action Plan for an amount of Rs. 216.71 lakh has been approved by Government of India.

 

Micro Irrigation Facility: The department of Horticulture is providing subsidy for drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and drip demonstrations for all horticulture crops, except coffee, tea, rubber and oil palm under the scheme of micro irrigation since 2006-07. The assistance is available for a maximum area of five ha per beneficiary family for both drip and sprinkler irrigation. Under drip irrigation, 80 per cent subsidy is provided for the first two ha and 50 per cent for the remaining three ha. In 2013-14 for all categories of farmers in drip irrigation, 90 per cent subsidy is provided for the first two ha and 50 per cent for the remaining three ha. The subsidy for the sprinkler irrigation is 90 per cent. Under drip demonstration component, the State/Central government institutes, farmers of non-government organisation/progressive farmers can avail assistance of upto cent per cent for a maximum area of 0.5 ha.

 

Disease and Pest Management: The Department of Horticulture, through its plant protection programmes, provides bio-pesticides, botanicals, chemicals, pheromone traps and lures to control the pests and diseases of horticulture crops. In addition, pest surveillance is undertaken in different districts to predict the outbreak of pest and diseases and, create awareness in the management of pests and diseases like eriophyidmite, black-headed caterpillar, stem bleeding, tomato leaf curl virus, bacterial blight and koleroga of areca nut.

 

During 2012-13, Rs.146.57 lakh was spent against Rs. 150 lakh for parasite production, bacrimeria production, chemicals distribution, pest surveillance and publicity. During 2013-14 Rs.1,495.76 lakh has been allocated for parasite production, assistace for chemical purchase and good management practices in pomegranate.

 

Strengthening of Departmental Laboratories under RKVY: This is implemented in Tumakuru, Chitradurga, Mysuru, Davanagere, Hassan and Chamarajanagar Districts. During 2011-12, 4 laboratories are developed with the total financial allocation of Rs.80 lakh and during 2012-13, 4 laboratories were developed with the total financial allocation of Rs.40 lakh.

 

Areca Research Station at Sringeri: The ‘Yellow Leaf Disease’ has been a limiting factor for cultivation of Arecanut in Sringeri, Koppa and Narasimharajapura taluk of Chikkamagaluru District. In this context, an exclusive “Areca Research Station” has been established at Sringeri as proposed in the 2008-09 budget to help the areca growers with scientific recommendation for the management of the disease.

 

An amount of Rs.200 lakh during 2008-09, Rs.80 lakh during 2009-10 , Rs.50 lakh during 2010-11 and 2011-12 and 2012-13 was provided to Horticulture University, Bagalkot for this purpose. Further, an amount of Rs.25 lakh has been released during 2012-13 and Rs.48.30 lakh during 2013-14 out of which an amount of Rs.46.20 lakh has been spent upto December 2013. Research activities are under progress in yellow leaf decease affected gardens, besides taking survey of yellow leaf decease affected areas.

 

Comprehensive Horticulture Development: The development of horticulture in the state are ridden with many problems and shortcomings like low value addition, poor marketing facilities and improper crop management practices. In order to achieve comprehensive development in the Horticulture sector, a scheme called Integrated Development of Horticulture with a budget outlay of Rs.305 crore has been announced in the year 2012-13 budget speech.

 

The component of Promotion of Crop Clusters will be implemented in all 176 taluks of all the 30 districts of the State. During 2012-13, an amount of Rs.15,000 lakh has been enmarked, out of which Rs.20153.92 lakh has been released. Area under horticulture crops were expanded in an area of 134.44 ha, with an expenditure of Rs.17155.40 lakh.

 

Postharvest infrastructure and Management: Karnataka is one of the Horticulturally progressive State in India. Due to its ideal Agro-climatic conditions and enterprising farming community, almost all types of horticultural produces are produced in Karnataka. Since, fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, efficient Post Harvest Management has become an absolute necessity.

 

It is also important for effective exploitation of export potential of fruits and vegetables. In Karnataka, only one per cent of the total production of fruits and vegetables are processed into different products.

 

About 25-30 per cent of the produce is lost due to improper Post Harvest Management. To avoid the post harvest losses a chain of cold storages, processing and marketing facilities need to be created. Among Post Harvest Management practices like pre-cooling, cold storages and refrigerated transport are most important. Karnataka has 82 cold storages, of which 74 are in private, four are in co-operative and four are in public sector. To make the existing storages facilities economical and to encourage establishment of new cold storage in private/co-operative sector.

 

The Government of Karnataka has been implementing a programme called “Processing and value addition for Horticulture crops”. It includes activities related to grape dehydration, red chilli powdering, vanilla processing, winemaking unit and desiccated coconut powder units. Since horticulture produce like fruits, vegetables and flower are perishable, it is important to provide proper post-harvest management practices for these produce. Karnataka has 82 cold storages, of which 74 are in private, four are in co-operative and four are in public sector.

 

To make the existing storages facilities economical and to encourage establishment of new cold storages in private/co-operative sector, electricity subsidy of One Rupee is provided for every unit of electricity consumed by the cold storage units.

 

The fruits and vegetables that are readily stored are potato, grapes, tamarind, citrus, pomegranate, pineapple, chilli, apple and cut flowers.

 

Processing of Fruits and Vegetables: Government of Karnataka is considering fruit and vegetable processing sector as a thrust area for development. The Government has been implementing a programme called “Processing and value addition for Horticulture crops”. It includes activities related to grape dehydration, red chilli powdering, vanilla processing, wine making unit and desiccated coconut powder units.

 

With growing urbanization and increasing quality consciousness, the market for processed fruit and vegetable is expected to grow rapidly. Therefore, there is enormous potential for developing agro products. At present there are 1,533 licensed processing units in the State with annual production of two lakh tons of processed products. The processed fruits are Mango, Grapes, Pineapple, Papaya, Guava and others. The major vegetables processed are Tomato, Potato, peas, Gherkins and others. Agri Export Zones (AEZ) have been created in Karnataka. The concept of AEZ, attempts to date a comprehensive look at a particular produce/produce located in a contiguous area for the purpose of leading to final exports. Such AEZs have been created for Gherkins, Rose Onion and Floriculture.

 

The Government of Karnataka proposes to establish Food and Agriculture Technology Parks (FATP) at six locations i.e. at Malur, Bagalkote, Belagavi, Chitradurga, Maddur and Jewargi. Out of six Food and Agriculture Technology Parks, sanction has been given by Government of India for two parks one at Malur and another at Bagalkote.

 

These Parks are established at a total cost of Rs.10 crores each. The main objective of establishing Food and Technology Parks is to promote agro and processing industries in cluster in area where there is predominant production of processable agriculture and Horticulture Products. These parks will also provide the required infrastructural and common facilities which are essential for sustenance of the industries. Quality assurance laboratories, Ware housing including cold storages, common effluent treatment plants etc. Another important aspect of the Food and Technology Parks is creating awareness among the farmers and producers of Agriculture and Horticulture products about the advantages of cultivating/ growing right variety of primary products which are amenable for processing and thus ensure that the twin objectives of assuring a better return to the farmers and assured supply of raw materials to the processors are achieved. Development of Agro Food Parks is expected to give a boost to the Horticultural sector in and around the area of Agro Parks.

 

Marketing and Other infrastructure facilities: The Department of Horticulture acts as the facilitator for creation of infrastructure facilities for marketing of fruits and vegetables in the state. The Department of Agricultural Marketing is facilitating the marketing of agricultural/horticultural produces in the state. The Department of Agricultural Marketing recently established ‘Raithra Santhe” wherein the growers/ farmers can bring their fruits and vegetables to the market and sell them directly to the growers .The Department of Agricultural Marketing handles the notified Fruits and Vegetables in the State through APMC’S.

 

The other marketing infrastructure in the State are the Department promoted HOPCOMS–a Cooperative society for marketing of horticultural produce in Bengaluru which handles a quantity of 100 Metric tons of fruits and vegetables per day, the Department promoted District Horticultural Societies in all the Districts to market Fruits and Vegetables. At present 19 District Horticultural societies are functioning in the state. A project for strengthening of HOPCOMS in nineteen districts through Karnataka Horticulture Federation has been approved under RKVY with an outlay of Rs. 26.50 crore. Out of this Rs.10crore has been utilised under the programme.

 

The Department of Horticulture have initiated to modernize the fruits and vegetable market in the State through National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in Bengaluru. The Department also initiates to start Modernized Fruits and Vegetable market in Mysuru, Hubli-Dharwar and Vijayapura. The Marketing section of the Horticultural Department monitor the prices of important horticulture crops and publish the prices book annually for the use of departmental officers/officials and also submits the proposals to the Government whenever the prices of these commodities falls in the market to intervene and purchase of these commodities.

 

The Government is giving importance to marketing and processing of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops to avoid Post Harvest Losses. The initiative of Government of Karnataka in this direction has led to establishment of a gigantic Horticultural Marketing Complex at Kannamangala by NDDB at a total cost of Rs.150 crores.

 

Satellite mapping of Horticulture crops with the help of ISRO to develop a Horticultural data Bank: Data base is essential to take up developmental programmes. The data on area and production of Horticulture crops brought out by various departments/organizations do not match with each other. At the time of taking policy decision, the data base plays a crucial role. Therefore, the Department proposes to take up one time survey for perennial horticultural crops and also to use the services of ISRO to employ the latest and sophisticated methods to map the area under different Horticultural crops in the state. This would help in proper and real estimation of area under horticultural crops in the state. This would further lead to more scientific estimation of yield and production of Horticultural crops in the state.

 

Wine Policy and Establishment of Karnataka Grape Wine Board: The Karnataka Grape Wine Board has been set up for implementing the programmes under the Wine Policy which envisages to promote wine varieties of grapes and to encourage wine industries in the state since 2007. During the year 2010-11, a Share Capital of Rs.25 lakh and an amount of Rs.25 lakh for Wine Festival has been released to the Karnataka Wine Board. During 2011-12, an allocation of Rs.150 lakh was made under this scheme, out of which Rs.100 lakh have been released as Share Capital and Rs.50 lakh for Wine Festival to the Karnataka Wine Board. During the year 2012-13, a budgetary provision of Rs.10 lakh has been made towards share capital to be given to the Wine Board. In 2013-14, a provision of Rs.350 lakhs has been made out of which Rs.317.50 lakhs has been allocated as share capital and Rs.32.50 lakhs for developmental activities. An amount of Rs. 262.50 lakhs has been released up to December, 2013 with a financial achievement of Rs. 257.50 lakhs.

 

Mango Development Board: Karnataka is one of the leading states in the Country in mango production. The regional climate has favoured the cultivation of various varieties of mangoes in the State. Mango Development Board has been established during 2010-11 to promote and streamline the production, processing, marketing and export of mangoes in the State. The Mango Development Centre is developed at Kolar and Chikballapura at a total cost of Rs. 19 crore under the RKVY. The Board is looking after the activities of these resource centres. During 2010-11, an allocation of Rs. 1000 lakh was earmarked for this purpose and an amount of Rs.515 lakh was spent. During 2010-11 the Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Limited, has been incorporated on 19-01-2011 under the Companies Act 1956. During the year 2010-11, an Initial Corpus Fund of Rs.511.16 lakh has been provided to this Corporation by the Department of Horticulture. During the year 2011-12, a budget of Rs.500 lakh was earmarked, out of which Rs.375 lakh was released to the Department. Out of the released amount, Rs.275 lakh has been given as Corpus Fund and Rs.100 lakh as Development Fund to the Mango Corporation.

 

During 2012-13, a budgetary allocation of Rs.500 lakhs is made, out of which Rs.400 lakh as Corpus Fund and Rs.100 lakh as Development Fund. Up to the end of September 2012, a budget of Rs.250 lakh has been released and the programme is under progress. Market promotion activities and Mango Melas have been organized at Bengaluru, Dharwad, Ramanagaram and Mysuru.

 

Biotechnology: The Biotechnology Centre of the Department of Horticulture is taking up activities like germplasm conservation, tissue culture, mushroom development, production of bio-fertilizer and bio- pesticides, soil, water and leaf analysis, DNA finger printing etc. In 2013-14, a total of 8.85 lakhs tissue culture plants were produced by utilizing Rs.132.43 lakhs and 210.3 tonnes of biofertilizers and biocontrol agents and 39 tonnes vermicompost were produced under the scheme of Development of Departmental Laboratories upto December 2013.

 

Training programmes and demonstrations were arranged at this centre to promote cultivation and consumption of mushroom, to create awareness of Organic farming, use of medicinal plants, kitchen garden etc. A total of 12,630 spawn bottles, 50.25 kg. Mushrooms and 785 kg. Mushroom compost were produced up to September 2013. Under Extension and Training Programme 7 training programmes were organized to train about 288 farmers/Public/Students. Quality control laboratory is set up for testing and analysis of bio inputs at this centre. A total of 1261 and 215 water, soil and leaf samples were analyzed for macro nutrients and micro nutrients respectively, six samples of active ingredients of medicinal and aromatic plants, 84 samples of quality testing of organic manure, 80 samples of residue analysis, 209 samples for heavy metal contents and 76 Phytosanitary samples were analysed up to September,2013.

 

Further, under the scheme of Development of Departmental Laboratories up to September, 2013, a total of 1260, 577 and 417 water, soil and leaf samples were analysed in Shivamogga, Vijayapura and Belagavi districts, respectively. A total of 3000 mushroom spawn bottles were produced in Mysuru district. Under this scheme, Rs.250 lakh was released; out of which Rs.200.24 lakh have been spent up to September, 2013.

 

Agricultural Marketing: Sophisticated agricultural marketing system ensures fair price for the farmers and also reduces the postharvest losses and wastage. Karnataka has 155 Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) to facilitate and regulate the marketing of agricultural commodities in the State. The APMCs are managed by an elected managing Committee. The Secretary and supporting staff are Government Servants working in the APMCs.

 

In an attempt to modernise the marketing system computerized E-tendering system has been introduced under RKVY Scheme. Farmers have benefited largely from this system as the transaction is transparent and it gets over in a shorter time. E-trading facility has been already implemented through NCDEX platform in 26 APMCs i.e. 1) Kalaburgi, 2) Tiptur, 3) Tumakuru, 4) Arasikere, 5) Vijayapura, 6) Bagalkot, 7) Ballari, 8) Haveri, 9) Yadgir, 10) Chitradurga, 11) Challakere, 12) Gadag, 13) Mysuru, 14) Raichur, 15) Dharwad, 16) Hubballi 17) Shivamogga, 18) Yallapura 19) Koppal, 20) Bhadravati, 21) Bailahongala 22) Bidar, 23) Chamarajanagara, 24) Channagiri, 25) Ranebennur and 26) Sagar. The day-to-day transactions of APMCs including management of accounts, property, daily transaction, developmental works, permits and administration works have been computerized with the help of management software developed by the KEONICS. Of total APMCs, 78 have adopted this management software during the year 2009-10. Government of Karnataka implements the Floor Price Scheme. In order to prevent farmers from the distress sale of their agriculture produce. Paddy and coconut crops come under this scheme.

 

Under the Rural Infrastructure development fund scheme Rs.2.45 crore was released for the development of 7 rural markets. Out of these, 6 works in APMCs Gokak, Yalaburga, Lingasugur, Tumakuru, Gangavathi, Maddur are completed in the year 2011-12. The Government of India has introduced the rural godown scheme from the year 2001-02 to help the farmers to store their commodities scientifically in godowns and to sell the same when the prices rise. Under the scheme, construction of 450 godowns in the rural areas coming under 11 APMCs jurisdiction has been taken up. Works have been completed.

The Government has accorded administrative approval for establishing Rice Technology Park with the State-of-the-Art technology for processing, grading, packing, branding, marketing and export of rice in Karatagi of Gangavathi taluk at an estimated cost of Rs.3,719 lakh. During 2011-12, budget allocation of Rs.500 lakh has been made to operationalise the scheme. Land acquisition to an extent of 139 acres39 guntas has been completed. Acquisition process is under progress for the acquisition of additional required land. Establishment of Tur Technology Park at Kalaburgi, maize technology park at Ranibennur, and Coconut technology park at Tiptur are in progress. Government provides 25 per cent subsidy for investment by the private entrepreneurs for the establishment of agricultural produce wholesale markets. Under the National Horticulture Mission there is a provision for availing 25 per cent subsidy. During the year 2009-10, 18 Market Committees have taken up schemes at a cost of Rs.5,648.13 lakh. Out of this 17 works are completed and one work is under progress.

 

Raitha Sanjeevini Insurance Scheme: Under this farmers who meet with an accidental death or are permanently disabled while being involved in farming / marketing activities are provided a compensation ranging from Rs.1,500 to Rs.50,000. From 2009-10 to 2012-13, an amount of Rs.12.45 crore was given as compensation to 2860 farmers. During 2012-13, 227 farmers were given compensation and Rs.one crore was spent for the purpose. In 2013-14, 193 farmers are given compensation and Rs.86.54 lakh was spent for this purpose.

 

Janashree Bima Yojane: The janashree Bima Yojane is an insurance scheme implemented with the help of Life Insurance Corporation of India for the welfare of licensed weighmen, hamals and cartmen working in APMCs. Under the Scheme, for accidental death or permanently disability, an amount for Rs.75,000 and for natural death Rs.30,000 is given as compensation.

 

An amount of Rs.44,58,989 was given to 141 families from 2009-10 to 2012-13. In 2013- 14 an amount of Rs.13,79,994 was paid as compensation to 46 families. Further, through this scheme two children (who are students of 9th to 12th standards) of the registered persons are eligible to get scholarships at the rate of Rs.100/- per month.

 

Global Agri-business and food processing: Global Agribusiness Meet was held in December 2011with an aim to attract private investment from National and International firms in the field of technologies in food processing/packaging, post- harvest technologies, education & research, marketing, infrastructure development, Agri logistics etc., so as to achieve high growth in agriculture and allied sectors and enable farmers to earn higher income.

 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCES

Livestock rearing plays a very vital role in rural economy in supplementing family income from agriculture and also providing employment. Farmers are dependent on animal husbandry activities to utilise agricultural by-products and crop residues to convert them into animal products with good returns. The Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas In historical times donated cows in thousands (gosahasra) and the gosasa stones are found in hundreds to commemorate this act. These cows were donated to villagers all over their empire to encourage animal husbandry. There was “benne chavadi”, a department to collect ghee at the Mysuru Court. Haider Ali made efforts to promote Amritmahal bullock breed which were excellent draught animals.

 

Livestock Census 2007: Karnataka offers a favourable climate for livestock rearing and allied activities. The share of animal husbandry in GSDP of agriculture and allied activities was 26 per cent during 2011-12. The share of Animal Husbandry in GSDP of Agriculture and Allied activities was 26 per cent in 2011-12. The share of Karnataka in all India livestock and poultry population was 5.83 per cent and 6.48 per cent, respectively. The density of livestock in the State was estimated at 172 per sq.km and 61131 per lakh human population. In 2012-13, the production of milk in the State was 5.7 million MT and the per capita daily availability is 254 gms. The livestock and poultry statistics is shown in Table 4.23. India ranks first in the world and Karnataka State ranks eleventh among Indian States in milk production. In 2012-13, the production of milk in the State was 5.7 million MT and the per capita daily availability was 254gms.The production of milk at the all India level was 127.9 million MT and per capita daily availability was 291 gms in 2011-12.

 

Veterinary Institutions: The spread of Veterinary services has resulted in the improvement of animal health. Karnataka has a network of 4,112 Veterinary Institutions, comprising of 371 veterinary Hospitals, 1,943 Veterinary Dispensaries, 1,181 Primary Veterinary Centres, 229 artificial insemination centres and 174 mobile veterinary clinics and 214 other veterinary Institutions. During 2010-11 and 2011-12, 114.21 lakh and 111.52 lakh cases were treated for various diseases respectively. During 2012-13, 111.58 lakh cases were treated for various diseases. During 2010-11 & 2011-12, 387.97 lakh and 559.47 lakh vaccinations were given for various diseases respectively. In 2012-13, 522.45 lakh vaccinations were given for various diseases as precautionary measure. Government of India has declared the State as a disease- free zone from rinderpest. The same type of eradication programme has been taken up for Foot and Mouth disease.

 

Cattle Development: Cattle breeding programme for milch animal production and conservation of indigenous breeds i.e., Hallikar, Amrutmahal, Khilar and Deoni for drought purposes is carried out through artificial insemination and embryo transfer technology. Indigenous breeds are developed by selective breeding in the livestock farms located at kunikenahalli in Tumakuru, Ajjampura in Chikkamagaluru and Bankapura in Haveri districts. Frozen semen from the centers at Hessaraghatta and Dharwad is supplied for breeding purposes. In 2011-12 and 2012-13, 31.37 lakh and 25.08 lakh artificial inseminations were done, resulting in to birth of 7.69 lakh and 6.46 lakh calves respectively during these two years. Further, 6.49 lakh and 7.15 lakh castrations were also performed respectively during these two years. In 2013-14, 12.16 lakh artificial inseminations were done giving birth to 3.16 lakh calves and 2.90 lakh castrations were performed up to September, 2013 There are eleven livestock farms under the control of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, of which some are composite in nature. Composite livestock farms are engaged in production of superior germplasm, fodder seeds and imparting training to farmers. The details of livestock farms are given here.

 

  1. State Livestock Breeding and Training Centre, Hesaraghatta – Jersey cattle breeding, bull-calf production, frozen semen production, farmer’s training, fodder and fodder seed production.
  2. Livestock Breeding Farm, Hesaraghatta - Cross breeding and bull calf production, fodder development, Pig and Rabbit rearing.
  3. Jersey Cattle Breeding Station, Kudige, Kodagu District - Jersey Cattle breeding, bullcalf production, farmer’s training, fodder development and pig development.
  4. Livestock Breeding farm, Koila, Dakshina Kannada District - Cross breed calf production, Surti buffalo production, fodder development, pig production and farmers training.
  5. Hallikar Cattle Breeding Station, Kunikenahalli, Tumakuru District - Hallikar Cattle Breeding, bull-calf production and distribution and fodder development.
  6. Amritmahal Cattle Breeding Station, Ajjampur, Chikkamagaluru District -Amritmahal cattle breeding, bull-calf production and distribution, Rabbit production and distribution and fodder development.
  7. Khillar Cattle Breeding Station, Bankapur, Haveri District - Khillar Cattle Breeding, fodder development, bull-calf production and distribution. Rabbit production and distribution.
  8. Jersey Cattle Breeding and Training centre, Dharwad UAS Campus - Jersey Cattle Breeding, bull-calf production, farmer’s training, fodder development and frozen semen production.
  9. Buffaloes Breeding Farm, Tegur, Dharwad District - Surthi Buffalo breeding, bullcalf production and distribution, fodder production.
  10. Livestock Breeding and Training Centre, Munirabad, Raichur District - Jersey Cattle Breeding, fodder development, farmer’s training, frozen semen production and distribution.
  11. Livestock Breeding and Training Centre, Karikuppi, Ballari District - Cross Breed bull calf production, fodder production, fodder development and farmer’s training.

 

National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding ( upto Sep 2012): The National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding is a 100% centrally 227AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES sponsored programme and is implemented through Karnataka Live Stock Development Agency for strengthening of Animal Breeding Services. Because of effective implementation of this programme, the number of productive cattle and buffalo has increased and the number of unproductive, non- descript cattle and buffalo have decreased as per the latest Livestock census. Semen production centers, bull mother farms and Artificial Insemination Centers in the state have been provided with necessary infrastructure like buildings, equipment, high pedigreed bulls and liquid nitrogen storage and transport facilities for production of quality frozen semen.

 

Rural unemployed youth have been trained for 4 months in Artificial Insemination and provided with equipment to carryout Artificial Insemination service at farmers door step. For the current year, around 167 rural youth were trained up to September, 2013 and 834 Para Veterinarians are undergoing training in modern trends of Artificial Insemination.

 

Sheep and Wool Development

Karnataka Sheep and sheep products development Board was established in 1975 to oversee the welfare of sheep and sheep farmers in the state and was converted to Karnataka sheep and wool development corporation (KSWDC) with effect from 5-12-2001. The main objectives of KSWDC include 1.Sheep rearing and management, 2.Breed Improvement of Sheep, 3.Mechanical shearing of Wool, 4.Collection, grading and processing of wool and 5.Manufacturing & Marketing of Wool and woollen products.

 

KSWDC is implementing various state government programmes like health Coverage of sheep, Breed improvement of sheep, Mechanical wool shearing programme, Subsidy schemes for sheep farming and training programmes. The central government programmes undertaken by KSWDC include Integrated Wool Development Programme and Kendriya Bhed Palak Vima Yojana. There are six sheep breeding farms functioning under KSWDC. The largest farm is located at Challakere where crossbred rams are produced.

 

KSWDC is implementing the scheme in coordination with the Central Wool Development Board, Jodhpur. Under the scheme, a project area of 50,000 sheep will be selected and programmes will be implemented for the integrated development of sheep in the project area for a period of 4 years. Sheep rearers in the project area are supplied with cross bred rams, medicines and free training camps in scientific sheep husbandry.

 

Poultry

Karnataka Co-operative Poultry Federation (KCPF) at Bengaluru is functioning since 1995. Presently, 80 primary poultry cooperative societies are affiliated to the federation which receives grant- in-aid from the State Government. Karnataka is the first State in the Country to bring Karnataka Poultry and Livestock Feed {Regulation of Manufacture and Sale) Order, 1987 under section-3 of Essential Commodities Act, 1955. This was given effect from 7th March 1988. All feed manufacturers and dealers should obtain the License for manufacture of feed for sale and distribution of Poultry and Livestock feeds. The quality feed should be as per standards specified by the Licensing Authority as per the advice of the expert committee. 23 poultry farms are functioning under the technical guidance of the department. The major developmental activities are breeding and rearing of Giriraja parent stock and supplying chicks to the farmers and rearing centers of the department.

 

There are 32 poultry institutions in the State the details of which are as follows:

  1. The State Poultry Breeding and Training Centre at Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru
  2. Three Regional Poultry Breeding and Training Centres at Malavalli, Gangavathi and Haveri
  3. Eight District Poultry Rearing and Training centres at Kalaburgi, Davanagere, Kudige, Bidar, Vijayapura, Gundlupet, Mangalore and Kolar;
  4. Thirteen Poultry Rearing centres at Tumakuru, Shivamogga, Raichur, Kumta, Kundapur, Chikkamagaluru, Ponnampet, Hassan, Ramanagaram, Tirumakudal Narasipur, Holenarsipura, Koila and Kurikuppe;
  5. Five Intensive Poultry and Egg Marketing Centres at Bengaluru, Mysuru, Dharwad, Belagavi and Kalaburgi are merged with Karnataka Cooperative Poultry Federation;
  6. One Livestock and Poultry Feeds’ Quality control wing at Bengaluru and
  7. One Registration and Hatcheries wing in Bengaluru.

 

Piggery Development

In Karnataka, five Pig Breeding Stations are located one each in Hessaraghatta in Bengaluru District, Kudige in Kodagu District, Koila in Dakshina Kannada District, Bangarpet in Kolar District and Kalasa in Chikkamagalur District. Among other activities, these stations are engaged in production and distribution of pure breed piglets to beneficiaries of various socio- economic programmes and, training and extension services in modern pig rearing. There are 550 small, medium and large scale modern piggery units established in the State with the financial assistance from various banks. Under RKVY, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services has chosen 12 districts viz., Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Ramanagar, Kolar, Mandya, Tumakuru, Kodagu, Hassan, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Chikkaballapur, and Chikkamagaluru to form a Pig Breeding Association under the Cooperative Society Act to establish good quality pork and marketing facility.

 

Rabbit Rearing

Four rabbit rearing farms are functioning in the State. These farms maintain and breed New Zealand White, California White and Grey giant breeds of rabbits. The bunnies are being sold to interested farmers.

 

Dairy Development

Dairy development activities under “Operation Flood” programme pertain to providing guaranteed and remunerative market to the rural milk producers and supply of hygienic milk and milk products to the urban consumers. Karnataka Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (KMF) has been designated as implementing agency for Operation Flood Project. Financial assistance for capital investments in the district Milk Unions flows from National Dairy Development Board. The main objective of KMF is the co-ordination of various phases in production of milk and milk products like procurement, processing, marketing and distribution. The technical input is provided by KMF through milk unions to the farmers of Dairy Co-operative societies (DCS).

 

The Federation has 22 Dairy processing plants with a capacity of 43.85 lakh litres a day. The state has 45 chilling centres with 19.30 lakh litres of chilling capacity. There are five product dairies equipped to produce 100 MT’s of milk powder per day and five cattle feed plants with ISO 9001/2000 certification for quality production and supply of cattle feed to producers. There are 12,122 dairy co-operative societies functioning and 22.25 lakh farmers are enrolled as members.

 

FISHERIES

Karnataka State (erstwhile Mysuru State) emerged as a maritime State in 1956 with the reorganization of the States. An independent Department of Fisheries was set up during 1957. Since then, the Department of Fisheries has been consistently striving for development of fisheries and of fishermen by implementing various developmental schemes in both Marine and Inland fisheries Sectors.

 

The Fisheries Sector plays an important role in the socio-economic development of State, in view of its contribution to the food basket, nutritional security, large foreign exchange earnings, employment generation and income.

 

Fishery resources and Potential:

Marine: Out of 30 districts in Karnataka, only three districts viz. Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada are having marine resources. The total coastal length of Karnataka is 300 km out of which 42 km. in Dakshina Kannada district, 98 km in Udupi district and 160 km in Uttara Kannada district. The state has rich continental shelf of 27,000 square km with an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 87,000 square km having a resource potential of 4.25 lakh metric tonnes of fish production per annum.

 

Inland: There are 27 inland districts in the State in addition to three marine districts i.e., Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada which are having lesser inland resources. Karnataka has 5.60 lakhs ha. of freshwater sources consisting of 2.93 lakhs ha. of ponds, tanks and 2.67 lakhs ha.of reservoirs. In addition to this, 5813 km of river stretch and about 3,187 km of irrigation canals provides innumerable opportunities for inland fishing.

 

Production: The total fish production in Karnataka was around two lakh tonnes in the early eighties and reached a peak of over 5.46 lakh tonnes in 2011-12. The State’s fish production accounts for about 5.8 % of India’s total fish production. The current level of per-capita fish availability in the State is 6.8 kg. Karnataka ranks 5th position in the marine fish production and 9th position in the inland fish production in India.

 

Fishing community: In coastal areas fisheries sector provides wide scope for fishing and value addition activities particularly in terms of export potential. As such this sector is attracting both skilled and unskilled workers. Over the years, there is increase in the coastal fisherfolk population inducing more and more people into fishing and allied activities. Employment status and opportunities in marine fisheries sector of Karnataka has increased over the years in spite of growing mechanization and increasing replacement of labour-intensive fishing technologies.

 

Marine Fisheries

The State has 300 km of coastline, and 27,000 square km of continental shelf area, rich in pelagic fisheries resources. Out of the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million square km, Karnataka has a share of 87,000 square km. Traditionally, Karnataka coast is known as mackerel coast. The marine fisheries resource potential of the State is estimated at 4.25 lakh metric tonnes, of which 2.25 lakh metric tonnes from inshore zone up to a depth of 70 metres and remaining 2.0 lakh metric tonnes from the off shore/deep sea zone.

 

The pelagic fishery wealth of Karnataka coast, mainly comprising mackerel and oil sardine, used to be traditionally harvested by operating giant shore seine known as Rampani. But this method has now become almost obsolete. The mechanization of fishing operation was initiated with the introduction of 30 ft. to 43 ft. trawlers in 1960s for exploiting inshore demersal fishery including shrimps. Introduction of purse seines in 1970s enhanced the area of fishing operation and pelagic fish landings. Motorization of traditional crafts, like gill-netters and long liners and encouragement of off shore fishing beyond 50metres depth using bigger vessels for a duration of 7-8 days, have effectively increased the range and effort of fishing operation. Further, financial institutions have extended the required loan facilities for acquiring fishing boats, which has helped in enhancing the fleet strength.

 

In the recent years, fishermen have been trained in operation of sophisticated electronic equipment’s in fishing and navigation. Fishing by mechanized boats during monsoon has been prohibited under the provisions of Section 3 of the Karnataka Marine Fishing (Regulation) Act, 1986. According of Government order No. AHF 126 SFM 2005 dated 25-06-2005 The prohibition period is 57 days from 15th June to 10 August along the coasts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts and, 45 days along the coast of Uttara Kannada district from 10th June to 29th July.

 

Assistance is provided in the form of supply of VAT exempted diesel to reduce the fishing cost and purchase of modern fishing and navigational aids such as fish finders, radio- telephone equipment etc., for offshore fishing vessels for easy navigation and identification of fish in deeper waters. Application of remote sensing technology is also being used to identify potential fishing zones along the coast which help in saving fuel and time to fishermen.

 

Major Programmes in Marine Fisheries

The State has given importance for the development of infrastructure facilities like fishing harbours, landing centres, auction halls, setting up of ice plants, cold storages, freezing plants and frozen storages, construction and improvement of fishery link roads etc. Karnataka has eight fishing harbours located at Karwar, Tadri, Honnavar, Bhatkal, Gangolli, Malpe, Belikeri and Mangalore and 19 fish landing centers at intervening centers.

 

Construction of fishing harbour at Gangolli is being taken up. Fish landing centres at Kodibengre, Hejamadikodi have been recently constructed. The construction of fish landing centres at Belekeri and Alvekodi with central assistance is under progress. Extension of wharf at Mangalore and Karwar fishing harbours is being constructed with central assistance. Under ‘Sea Bird’ naval project, Karwar, construction of fishing at Amdahalli at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,032.00 lakh has been initiated.

 

However, an administrative approval has been obtained from the Government for construction of fish landing centre at Koderi at an estimated cost of Rs. 3000 lakh and an expenditure of Rs.2378.85 lakhs have been incurred. Sanction has been accorded by GoI for construction of Mangalore fishing harbour III stage at an estimated cost of Rs. 5760 lakh and Malpe fishing harbor III stage at an estimated cost of Rs. 3715 lakh and the State government has also given administrative approval for the same. Till now the expenditure of Rs.1028.29 lakh and Rs.1839.26 lakh have been incurred respectively for these projects.

 

To rejuvenate ice plants, subsidy at the rate of Rs.1.00 per unit of electricity consumed by these plants has been introduced in the coastal areas. A new scheme on purchase of life saving equipment such as life buoys and life jackets has been started in 2011-12, with 75% subsidy. As per the latest data, there were 163 ice plants with a capacity of 2,463 metric tons of ice per day, 29 cold storages with a capacity of 2,370 metric tons, 14 freezing plants storage plants with a capacity of 117 metric tons per day, 14 frozen storages with a capacity of 1,728 metric tons, 8 canning plants with a capacity of 528 metric tons and 17 fish meal plants with a capacity of 174 metric tonnes in marine districts.

 

Inland Fisheries

The state has vast potential for inland fishing. The total potential is estimated to be 4.02MT per year. During 2011-12, 5012.73 lakh fish seed (fry) has been produced. 2788 department tanks were developed by stocking 1771.60 lakh fingerlings. Similarly 2,228 Gram panchayat and minor tanks have been developed by stocking 328.99 lakhs fingerlings. About 1.99 lakh MT of inland fish has been produced.

 

As per latest data there were 67 ice plants with a capacity of 762 metric tonnes per day, 24 cold storage plants with storing capacity of 345 metric tonnes per day and, one frozen storage plant with a storage capacity of two metric tonnes per day. During the period between 1956 and 1966 the foremost activities in the Inland sector were to import fish seed, mostly riverine major carp fry collections, from West Bengal. Fish seed production and rearing farms have been set up in the government sector with a view to develop the much needed infrastructure for producing the required quantities of fish seed for stocking in tanks, ponds and reservoirs of the State.

 

The major programmes initiated under inland fisheries development include assistance for construction of fish ponds, stocking of grass carp seeds, construction of ponds in water logged areas, development of fish sanctuaries and intensive fish culture development through fish farmers development agencies, etc. From 2009- 10 onwards, a new scheme on providing 50% subsidy for purchase of fish seed and supply of fishery requisite kits worth Rs.5,000 (free of cost) was introduced. New fish seed farms at Nugu in Mysuru district and Karanje in Bidar district are established to produce and supply of quality fish seed. An ornamental fish production and rearing centre called Aquapark is also being established at Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru Urban district to promote ornamental fisheries.

 

In order to develop the much needed infrastructure for producing the required quantities of fish seed for stocking in tanks, ponds and reservoirs, fish seed production and rearing farms and taluk - level nurseries have been set up by the Department of Fisheries. At present, there are 55 fish seed production / rearing farms under the control of the State’s Department of Fisheries’ and Zilla Panchayats’ and 72 Taluk level nurseries in the State. To meet increased demand for fish seed, the Government has also encouraged the establishment of private fish seed production and rearing farms by providing subsidies. At present, there are 72 fish seed production and rearing farms in the private sector. The State requires at least about Rs. 40 crore fingerlings of fish seed to develop 50% water resources for fish culture.

 

Tank Fisheries Development: Tank fishery development plays a strategic role in providing employment and income to rural people. The fishery rights of the tanks with achkut of more than 40 hectares vest with the fisheries department. These water bodies are disposed of either by lease or tender cum auction. Tanks upto 40 hectares achkut areas have been transferred to the respective Gram Panchayats. Leasing policy: A comprehensive policy for disposal of tanks, reservoirs and rivers has been formulated. As per these amendments, the tanks are leased in the following order of priority: a) Jalasamvardhana Yojana Sangha, b) Karnataka Co-operative Fisheries Federation, Mysuru, c) Societies that have obtained membership of the Federation, d) Registered fisheries co-operative societies, e) Unemployed fisheries graduates f) Registered water users co- operative societies and other societies / institutions.

 

Fishermen Co-operative Society (FCS): The first fishermen co-operative society was registered in 1915 at Karwar. By 1956, Karnataka had 39 marine and 9 inland co-operative societies with one district level fish marketing federation at Mangalore. However there are 610 Fishermen Co-operative Societies in the State of which, 535 are functioning and 75 are defunct. One State Level Co-operative Fisheries Federation in inland and two District Co-operative Fish Marketing Federations are functioning in marine districts (Mangalore and Karwar) in the State. To assist the activities of these Co-operatives, share capital, fishery requisites loan and managerial subsidy are being provided. There are 1,77,436 members in all FCS.

 

Co-operative Marketing Federations: There are two District Co-operative Fish Marketing Federations, one in Dakshina Kannada District and another in Uttara Kannada District. These Federations are engaged in fish marketing and production of ice for supply to fishermen, sale of diesel and lubricants, besides sale of fishery requisites to the members. These federations are also implementing NCDC funded Integrated marine Fisheries development project.

 

Fisheries Corporation: The Karnataka Fisheries Development Corporation was established during 1971 under the Indian Company’s Act, 1956. The authorized share capital is Rs. 6.00 crores. The Corporation is engaged in activities like ice production, cold storage, freezing plant, and frozen storage for fishermen and processors, besides marketing of frozen fish through its cold chain.

 

Karnataka Co-operative Fisheries Federation (KCFF): Karnataka Co-operative Fisheries Federation was formed with the object of development of Fisheries in tanks and reservoirs through Fishermen Cooperative Societies, who are members of the federation by stocking quality fingerlings and marketing of fish through retail-outlets and upliftment of socio-economic conditions of inland fishermen. The reservoir fisheries development project with NCDC assistance was implemented in the districts of Mysuru, Chamarajanagar, Mandya and Hassan at a total cost of Rs.428.30 lakh. NCDC funded “Integrated Inland Fisheries Development Project” is being implemented at a cost of Rs.13.40 crore in the districts of Raichur, Ballari, Shivamogga, Dharwad Davanagere and Haveri through KCFF, Mysuru.

 

Fish Farmers development agencies: Under the centrally sponsored scheme on development of fresh water aquaculture, 13 Fish Farmers Development Agencies covering 17 districts have been established in the State for development of fisheries in ponds, minor tanks and derelict waters. Under this scheme unemployed youths are trained in fish culture and fisheries activities and suitable water bodies are leased to them for fisheries development. The beneficiaries are assisted to obtain loan from the financial institutions for purchase of fish seed, feed, manure and fishery requisites and renovation of ponds, and are provided with subsidy.

 

Other Initiatives for the Fisheries development in the State:

 

Seed Development: Good quality fish seed is a pre requisite for development of inland fisheries and in order to increase the fish seed production of the State. Sanction has been accorded for construction of fish seed farms at Karanja, Bidar district and Nugu, Mysuru district at an estimated cost of Rs.2.50 crores during 2010-11. In Bidar district, near Karanja reservoir 10 acres and in Mysuru district, near Nugu reservoir 24 acres of land has been procured for establishment of fish seed production farms. During 2011-12 an allocation of Rs.250.00 lakhs was made and Rs.250.00 lakhs has been spent.

 

The major fish seed farms in the State which have been established to produce and supply quality fish seed are Bhadra fish seed production farm at Bhadra Reservoir Project, Shivamogga District, National fish seed production farm at Bhadra Reservoir Project, Shivamogga District, Tungabhadra fish seed production farm at Tungabhadra Dam, Ballari District, Hagaribommanahalli fish seed farm, Ballari District, Narayanapura fish seed farm, Vijayapura District, Shivapura fish seed farm, Koppal District, V.V.Sagar fish seed farm, Chitradurga District, Markonahalli fish seed farm, Tumakuru District, Kabini fish seed farm, Mysuru District and Hessarghatta fish seed farm, Bengaluru (Urban) District.

 

Establishment of Aquapark: For the first time in the State with an objective of promoting ornamental fish seed production and sale in and around Bengaluru with utmost priority, Government has accorded administrative approval for the establishment of Aquapark with ornamental fish seed production and rearing units at Hesaraghatta at a cost of Rs.200.00 lakhs. Works are under progress. During the year 2011- 12, an allocation of Rs.150.00 lakhs has been made and Rs.149.62 lakhs has been spent. In 2012-13 an allocation of Rs.100 lakh was provided and Rs.99.95 lakh has been spent.

 

Fish Sanctuaries in Karnataka: River stretches are declared as fish sanctuaries for conservation of endangered and rare native fish species. Because of their unique and delicate ecosystem, any type of fishing is banned in these declared river stretches which helps to develop natural breeding of fish species.

 

Brackish water shrimp farming: Karnataka has about 8,000 ha. of brackish water area, of which 4,200 ha are suitable for shrimp culture. In order to encourage scientific fish farming in these waters, two brackish water fish farmers development agencies (BFDA’s) were established, one at Karwar and another at Brahmavara (presently in Udupi). These agencies are engaged in training of farmers in shrimp culture, selection of sites, and preparation of project reports for getting financial assistance from the banks. 25% subsidy is provided to the shrimp farmers to encourage scientific shrimp farming. Central and State governments equally share the cost.

 

Landing and Berthing Facilities: Under this scheme, construction and maintenance of fishing harbours and landing centres are taken up. Construction of fish landing centre at Kodibengre was taken up at a revised estimated cost of Rs. 179 lakh and an expenditure of `. 153.97 lakh has been incurred so far and civil work is completed. In addition, fish landing centre at Alvekodi in Uttara Kannada district at an estimated cost of Rs. 223.99 lakh is constructed. Fish landing centre at Koderi, Byndoor at an estimated cost of Rs. 3000 lakh is under construction.

 

NABARD Assistance under RIDF: Construction of 11 roads and 2 bridges have been completed at a total estimated cost of Rs. 192.51 lakhs under NABARD-assisted RIDF-IV and V. Administrative approval was accorded for construction of 16 roads and 2 bridges at a total cost of Rs. 370.12 lakh under RIDF-VII and completed at an expenditure of Rs. 347.81 lakh. Administrative approval was accorded for construction of 5 bridges and 24 roads at a total cost of Rs. 1056.83 lakh under RIDF VIII. Of the proposed activities, work related to 24 roads and 4 bridges were completed at the expenditure of Rs. 827.66 lakh. Further works have been taken up at Kodikanyana (estimated cost Rs. 300 lakh), Gangolli fisheries jetty (estimated cost Rs. 300 lakh), Belikeri (estimated cost Rs. 300 lakh), Balambara (estimated cost Rs. 260 lakh) and Karwar net mending shed (estimated cost Rs. 3 lakh). The construction of Jetty at Gangavali fish landing centre has been started.

 

During 2011-12, administrative approval was accorded for construction of jetty at Hangarkatte at a cost of Rs. 310 lakh under NABARD-assisted RIDF-14 and construction of jetty at Gangolli at a cost of Rs.300 lakh and ‘T’ head jetty at Kodikanyana at a cost of Rs.300 lakh under NABARD-assisted RIDF-15. A proposal for `.422.50 lakh has been sent to Government of India for NABARD-assisted RIDF-18 during 2012-13. Similarly in 2013- 14, under different works Rs.1800 lakh has been earmarked and `.83.59 lakhs has been spent up to September 2013.

 

Motorisation of traditional Fishing Crafts: The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Motorisation of Traditional Fishing Crafts was introduced in the State during 1987-88 and so far, 3189/- traditional crafts have been motorised. Under this scheme, for each outboard motor, half of the unit cost is provided as subsidy subject to a maximum of Rs. 30000/-. This subsidy amount is shared equally by State Government and Central Government. The rest of the amount is borne by the beneficiaries with assistance from financial institutions. 287 beneficiaries have been covered during the year 2011-12, 284 in 2012-13. In 2013- 14 Rs. 89.20 lakh budget have been provided for the implementation of the scheme.

 

Dredging of Fishing Harbour: In the State, under centrally sponsored scheme and other schemes major fishing harbours and small landing centres have been constructed and after construction due to lack of periodic dredging and other natural reasons (such as less inflow of water) some of these harbours and landing centres have severe problem of siltation. To solve the problem of siltation, dredging of harbours has been taken up. In 2011-12, GOI sanctioned works of dredging at Udyavara River, Mangalore Alivey-Kandathapalli, Kodibengre, Bhatkal and Hangarakatte. An allocation of Rs.1000 lakhs was made for dredging during 2012-13, works were started in few places but no expenditure has been incurred. In 2013- 14 Rs.1000 lakhs has been provided and Rs.19.85 has been spent up to September, 2013.

 

Maintenance of Coastal Link Roads: There are 181 fisheries link roads with a length of 276.51 Km in the three coastal districts of the State. During 2012-13, an allocation of Rs.400 lakhs was made and additional allocation of Rs.200 lakhs was also provided for development and maintenance of these fisheries link roads. An expenditure of Rs.598.55 lakhs has been incurred. In 2013-14 Rs.600 lakhs has been earmarked for this project.

 

Fishermen Welfare Schemes Distress Relief Fund: Distress Relief Fund was started in order to provide relief to fishermen/their dependents in case of death/permanent disability while fishing. The relief amount which was Rs.25000 per head during 2006- 07 has been increased to Rs.50000 per head. In 2011-12 under this scheme Rs.100 lakhs allocation was provided and the total amount has been spent. In 2012-13, relief worth Rs.36.66 lakhs was given to 69 beneficiaries in all death cases, Rs.0.10 lakhs for medical expenses to 2 fishermen, Rs.2.435 lakhs for loss of property to 37 fishermen from distress relief fund. In 2013-14 an amount of `.50 lakh has been earmarked.

 

Group Accident Insurance Scheme: Under this Centrally Sponsored Group Accident insurance Scheme, the premium amount of Rs.30 per fisherman, shared equally by State and Centre has been paid to the National Federation of Fisheries Co- operative Ltd., New Delhi towards insurance coverage of 150,000 fishermen of the State. In 2012- 13 Rs.22.50 lakhs has been paid to FISH COFED, New Delhi towards premium and Rs.37 lakhs has been distributed as relief in 38 cases. In 2013-14 Rs.25 lakhs budget has been provided and an expenditure of Rs.24 lakhs has been incurred till date.

 

Matsya Ashraya Scheme: In the State there is a great demand for houses from 28,000 houseless fishermen in the State. Since the funds provided by the GOI for the housing programme was insufficient, Government of Karnataka in the year 2006-07, started Matsya Ashraya III phase to construct houses at a unit cost of Rs.40,000/- per house. In 2011-12 the unit cost has been raised to Rs.60,000/- per house. During the years 2011-12 and 2012-13, under Matsyashrya scheme 2000 houses and under CSS scheme 1000 houses were sanctioned and partial amount has been released and works are under progress. In 2013-14 the unit cost has been enhanced to Rs.1.20 lakh and Rs.1,200 lakhs budget has been provided.

 

CSS Savings-cum-Relief Scheme for Marine Fishermen: Under this Scheme, Rs.75 per month will be collected from marine fishermen for a period of 8 fishing months in a year. A total amount of Rs.600 thus collected from each fisherman will be matched with Rs.600 by the State and Central Governments and the total of Rs.1,800 thus collected will be distributed during 3 lean months to the beneficiaries equally at Rs.600 per month. In 2012-13 an allocation of Rs.300 lakhs was made under this component. But since the beneficiary contribution was Rs.185.86 lakhs, Rs.371.72 lakhs was released including additional allocation through re-appropriation. The entire amount was utilised to distribute the relief to 30836 beneficiaries. In 2013-14 the Government has sanctioned Rs.400 lakhs and Rs. 392.60 lakhs has been incurred as on September, 2013.

 

Supply of Fishery Requisite Kits: In 2009- 10, to improve the livelihoods of the traditional and poor fishermen, “Supply of Fisheries Kit” was introduced by the Department. Under this scheme a kit consisting of fishing net, coracle and other fishery requisites are given to coastal or inland fishermen involved in traditional capture fisheries. The unit cost of each kit would be Rs. 5,000/- and it would be provided as cent per cent subsidy to the beneficiary. This would improve the economic condition of the poor fishermen and help them to lead their life.

 

Assistance to fishermen for purchase of life jackets and life buoys: Fisherman often go to the sea without any safety equipment’s. In the inland sector also there is no practice of carrying any safety equipment. Fishermen being financially backward have lot of other priorities and so do not spend money to buy lifesaving equipment’s resulting in loss of life. Therefore in order to encourage these fishermen to purchase bare minimum safety equipment’s such as life buoys and life jackets this new scheme has been introduced. Under this scheme, provision has been made to provide for the purchase of life jackets and life buoys at 75% subsidy to a maximum of Rs.3000/head. During 2011-12 an allocation of Rs.100.00 lakhs was made and the entire amount has been spent.

 

SERICULTURE

Karnataka is one of the leading silk producing states in the country. Mysuru silk is synonymous with splendour and grandeur. Nearly 70 per cent of the country’s mulberry silk production is in Karnataka itself. Rearing of silkworms and commercial production of cocoons and silk in Karnataka dates back to the 18th century, when sericulture was patronised by the rulers of the erstwhile Mysuru State. The architect of Mysuru Sir M. Visvesvaraya made sericulture an important component of rural development. Channapatna taluk soon developed as a centre of silk production in the state.

 

Sericulture is practised both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. The main silk producing regions in the State are the talukas of Channapatna, Kanakapura and Magadi in Bengaluru Rural district; Kollegal taluka of Chamrajnagar district and Ramanagaram district. Because of the introduction of new technologies, sericulture, which was earlier confined to a few districts, has now spread to other areas. Other low production districts include Tumakuru, Chitradurga and Chamarajnagar, Shivamogga, Davanagere.

 

Watershed Development Department: India is one of the major agricultural countries with more than 70 per cent of the population depending on it. Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoon which is not uniform over the years. Nearly three fourths of the cultivable land in India is dependent on monsoon, which is contributing nearly 42 per cent of the total production from agriculture. The productivity of any crop mainly depends on two natural resources-land and water in addition to management practices. Therefore the conservation up-gradation and utilization of these two natural resources on scientific principles is essential for the sustainability of rainfed agriculture. The watershed concept for development of rainfed agriculture is gaining importance over the years and it amply demonstrated that watershed developmental tools are very effective in meeting the objectives and mission.

 

Karnataka has been given an important place for Watershed Development because 75 per cent of the cropped area in Karnataka depends upon less and uncertain rainfall. The geographical area of the State is 190.50 lakh ha. Of which 116.90 lakh ha is available for watershed development.

 

Importance of watershed development in Karnataka: The land resources of Karnataka especially its dry drought prone lands, which comprises more than 79 per cent of the total arable area, have been poorly managed by the resource poor farmers of the state. Soil loss due to erosion coupled with reduced water resources has led to a situation of rapid soil fertility deterioration, declining/stagnating crop yields, depletion of underground water sources, deforestation, denudation, destruction of natural pasture and diminishing biomass production. Exploring the full potential of rain fed agriculture to meet the food, fodder and fuel requirement of the state population, is the only alternative, however, this will require investing in suitable soil and water conservation technologies, crop breeding targeted to rain fed environments, agricultural extension services, and access to markets, credit and input supplies in rain fed areas.

 

The potential for increasing the irrigable area and enhancing productivity from irrigated lands has its limitations. The total irrigation potential from all sources, including inter basin transfers, is estimated at around 50 per cent of the total cropped area of 104.89 lakh hectares by the Karnataka State land use board. The remaining land has to depend on rain fed farming forever. Therefore if the state has to conserve and develop natural resources in rain fed areas to improve their production and productivity, their development on watershed basis is inevitable. Development of rain fed areas is important because more than 44 per cent of its agricultural production comes from dry lands.

 

Karnataka has the highest proportion (79 per cent) of drought prone area among all major states in the country and in absolute terms it has the second largest area of dry land in the country after Rajasthan. In addition, Karnataka also has the second lowest (154.2 M ha M/Yf) replenishable ground water resources among major states after Rajasthan.

 

Watershed is a geo-hydrological unit of all land and water within the confines of drainage divide which contributes runoff to a common point. It is a land area that captures rainfall and conveys the overland flow and runoff to an outlet in the main flow channel. Watershed development refers to the conservation regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources-natural (like land, water plants, animals) and human-within the watershed area. Watershed Management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side and man and animals on the other. It is the man who is primarily responsible for degradation of the environment. Regeneration and conservation can only be possible by promoting awakening and participation of the people who inhabit the watersheds.

 

Objectives of Watershed Development Programmes are to Improve the productive potentials of selected watersheds and their associated natural resource base, sustainable alleviation of the Poverty, develop and strengthen community based institutional arrangements for sustainable natural resource management, improve skills and employment opportunities for non-farm sectors and involvement of village communities in participatory planning, implementation, social 237AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES and environmental management, maintenance of assets and to operate in a more socially inclusive manner.

 

Aims of the Programmes are improving agriculture productivity, improving vegetative cover, increasing milk and horticulture production, increasing fodder and fuel availability, reducing soil erosion, runoff and nutrient loss, improve water availability at surface and ground water, increasing household income, enhancing quality of life among local communities, local institutional development through community based organisations, ensuring institutional support by Watershed Development Department as facilitator and by NGOs for community organization and strengthening.

 

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru: UAS Bengaluru started in the year 1966 and has a campus of 1777 Acres. It has six colleges spread over six campuses in its jurisdiction of 15 Southern Districts of the State. The new Agriculture College has been established at Hassan. There are 21 Research Stations, four Extension Education Units and nine Krishi Vignana Kendra’s spread over six Agro Climatic zones. Animal sciences were bifurcated from University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru and transferred to Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University established at Bidar from 2005-06. Pro-chancellor of the Agriculture University is His Excellency Governor of Karnataka and Chancellor is Hon’ble Minister for Agriculture, Government of Karnataka.

 

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad: The University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad was started in the year 1986 and has 575 Hectares of land. It is carrying out teaching, research and extension activities in agriculture and allied sciences. Pro-chancellor of the Agriculture University is His Excellency Governor of Karnataka & Chancellor in Minister for Agriculture, Government of Karnataka. The teaching programmes are carried out through 8 colleges at 6 campuses in the jurisdiction of the University. Under-graduate degree programmes in agriculture are offered at Dharwad, Raichur, Vijayapura and Bheemarayanagudi. The degree programme in Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Forestry are offered at Raichur, Arabhavi and Sirsi campuses respectively. The degree programmes in Rural Home Science and Agricultural Marketing and Cooperation are offered at Dharwad Campus. The University is offering Master degree programmes in 30 subjects and Ph.D in 17 subjects at various campuses. The Post-graduate programmes are offered at Dharwad, Raichur, Sirsi and Arabhavi campuses.

 

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Raichur: University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS)., Raichur was started in the year 2009. It is carrying out teaching, research and extension activities in agriculture and allied sciences. The needs of the forming community of the Hyderabad- Karnataka region is being addressed by this University. Extension activities have been carried out through six Krishi Vignana Kendras and four Agriculture extension and education centres. Training, demonstrations, field days, Study tours for the farmers and farm women are the importance agricultural extension programmes. These are being carried out by the University in order to induce the farming community in adopting the new agricultural technology developed by the university.

 

The university has been awarded with “E-world 2012” award for its application of information technology in agriculture. Information on weather forecaste management of pest and diseases, agricultural market prices, training programmes, is being made available over mobile phone to the registered farmers of the region. About 12000 farmers are benefited under this scheme. E-solution for agricultural pest and diseases has been developed by the university and made available to the farmers on the field through Tablet-PC.

 

University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences (UAS), Shivamogga: This University was established on 21-09-2012. The UAS Bengaluru and Horticultural University, Bagalkot have transferred all the different institutions coming under UAS Shivamogga during March-2013. This includes one Agricultural college at Shivamogga, one forestry college at Kodagu, one Diploma Vidyalaya at Kattalageri, two horticulture colleges one at Chickmaglur and another at Chitradurga. The new universities started working independently from April-2013.

 

The jurisdiction of the university is seven districts i.e. Shivamogga, Davanagere, Chitradurga, Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu and Chikkmagalur.

 

University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot: University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkote has been established with the main objective of advanced research in Horticulture, education and extension activities for the welfare of farmers and people as a whole. New Horticultural Colleges have been established in Bidar, Bagalkote, Kolar, Mysuru, Sirsi, Hiriyur and Koppal districts.

 

Karnataka State Seeds Corporation Limited (K.S.S.C)

History: The Corporation was established in the year 1973 under the Name & Style of “Karnataka State Agro Seeds Corporation Limited”, a subsidiary organization of Karnataka Agro industries Corporation Limited. The Government of Karnataka have participated in the National Seed Project-II during 1979. Under the National Seed Project, the subsidiary organization was made as Independent Corporation under the present name and style of “Karnataka State Seeds Corporation Limited”. Today the Corporation is one of the successfully run organizations of the Government of Karnataka.

Aim: The aim of the Corporation is to emerge as an industry leader in the State, in seed sector, with a continuous pursuance of excellence in quality and effective distribution services, with an eye on right product, right time, right price, and right place of supply.

Vision: The Vision of the Corporation is to be a leading agency for accelerating agriculture productivity and production and for improving the viability of agriculture as a vocation.

 

Karnataka State Seed Certification Agency (K.S.S.C.A): Karnataka State Seed Certification Agency is an autonomous institution established in the year 1974 under the provisions of Section-8 of Seeds Act, 1966. The main objective of the Certification Agency is to ensure the quality of various crop seed produced under seed certification programme and to make them available to the farming community in time. Seed certification in our country is voluntary and not compulsory and only the varieties’ notified by the Govt. of India are eligible for certification. As there is no budgetary support from the State Government, this institution is running on the service charges collected for various certification works rendered by the Agency.

 

The Governing Board of Karnataka State Seed Certification Agency comprises of Principal Secretary, Agriculture and Horticulture, Department, GOK, as Chairman and Eight Ex-Officio, Four nominated Members, Managing Director, KSSC Ltd, as Special Invitee and Director, KSSCA as Member –Secretary.

 

Seed Certification Agency has its Head Office at Bengaluru, with two zonal offices each headed by officers of the cadre of Deputy Director at Bengaluru and Dharwad. Ten divisional offices controlled by the Assistant Director with Head Quarters at Bengaluru, Mysuru, Davanagere, Ballari, Dharwad, Haveri, Gadag, Bagalkote, Kalaburagi, Raichur and 25 Seed Certification officer centers spread over the entire State.

 

IRRIGATION

The ancient rulers of Karnataka undertook construction of a large number of tanks and paid maximum attention to irrigation. But in later period Vijayanagar rulers did put up a dam across the Cauvery in 1347 near Talakadu, impounded the waters of Kumudvati rivulet to create Masur Magada (which is over 400 acres in area), dug many canals from the Tungabhadra near the capital and tapped maximum quantity of water for irrigation from rivers. We hear of a hydraulic engineer (Jalasutradhari) in one of their records. The Mysuru ruler Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar’s Bangaradoddi Canal (17th century) drawn from the Cauvery is famous. Chikkadevaraya raised Chunchanakatte dam, a brick work during the same century.

 

Excavating tanks or their repair was held as a meritorious duty. So wide and systematic was the tank network all over, that one of the Commissioners of Mysuru, Bowring says the following of it : “As the country is generally undulating, and intersected by numerous valleys threaded by natural water courses, it occurred to the natives many centuries ago, to dam up the supply thus furnished, in order to irrigate their fields in the dry season, and in this way, as population increased additional land was brought under the plough, a chain of such tanks was formed, gradually increasing in size and capacity as the line was prolonged”. He further adds. “In many instances, advantage has been taken of the gorges in hills to throw up colossal embankments, which have withstood with fair success, the floods of centuries”. The arrangement was a chain of tanks, in a single catchment’s area. Every reservoir in the chain received surplus water from the one at the upper level, and thus there was no wastage to point out.

 

During the pre-independence era, the British and Mysuru State Government took up some notable irrigation works such as Krishnarajasagar, Sagarakatte Dam, Dhudpal veir near Gokak, Vanivilas Sagar, Marconahalli and Anjanapur. There has been a gradual increase in the gross irrigated area in the state. The gross irrigated area as percentage of total cultivated area has doubled from 16 per cent in 1980-81 to 34 per cent in 2011-12. The gross irrigated area has increased from 16.76 lakh ha in 1980-81 to 41.37 lakh ha in 2010-11. The net irrigated area in the state is 34.40 lakh hectare in 2011-12. Out of this about 17.01 lakh ha comes under well irrigation (including borewells details are shown in table 4.31). The cumulative irrigation potential under major, medium and minor irrigation (surface water) is anticipated to go up to 39.50 lakh ha in 2013-14. Overall from all the three irrigation projects, 1.46 lakh hectares of additional potential is anticipated during 2013-14.

 

Micro irrigation: With growing scarcity of water resources and challenges of climate change, the adoption of proven cost reducing micro-irrigation technology in agricultural activities becomes a necessity. Under the centrally sponsored scheme on micro irrigation 75% subsidy is provided to the farmers for purchase of drip and sprinkler irrigation units. As per the GOI guidelines, 40% of GOI share is matched with 35% of GOK share for big farmers and for small and marginal farmers 50% of GOI share is being matched with 25% of GOK share.

 

Hydrology Project-II: Hydrology Project PhaseII is a World Bank Aided Project and Government of India has included the state of Karnataka for participating in the hydrology Project Phase- II. It has allocated a provision of Rs. 23.53 crore for the purpose. This has again been divided into two components. Surface Water Component (Rs. 9.09 crore) and Ground Water Component (Rs.14.44 crore). Hydrology Project-II is a follow up action project of World Bank Aided Hydrology Project-I, wherein infrastructure for collection of data was established. The data so collected is now proposed for utilization in the new Hydrology Project-II. The overall project development objective is to extend and promote the sustained and effective use of Hydrological system by all potential users concerned with water resources planning and management thereby contributing to productivity and cost-effectiveness of water related investments. The main components are institutional strengthening, which includes consolidation of Hydrology Project-I activities, awareness raising, and knowledge sharing and implementation support and vertical Extension, which includes development of Hydrological design aids, Development of Decision Support implementation of Purpose driven studies.

 

Accelerated Irrigation benefit programme (AIBP): For the early completion of some of the ongoing irrigation projects, which were lingering due to shortage of funds for many years, the Government of India launched the Accelerated Irrigation benefit programme, during 1996-97. Since then, 15 projects in the State are being implemented by using Central assistance. The cumulative expenditure incurred under AIBP projects till September 2013 is Rs. 4641.12 crore and the anticipated expenditure for the year 2013- 14 is Rs. 700 crore.

 

PM’s Special Package: (SUJALA-II): During 2006-07, the Special Rehabilitation Package was launched by the Government of India to mitigate the distress of farmers in selected 31 districts of the Country from where large numbers of Suicide cases by the farmers were reported. In Karnataka, the 7 districts viz Belagavi, Vijayapura, Shivamogga, Chikkamagalur, Chitradurga, Hassan and Kodagu were identified as drought prone districts. The cumulative expenditure incurred under PM’s Special Package till September 2013 is Rs. 942.39 crore and anticipated expenditure for the year 2013-14 is Rs. 2380.54 crores.

 

Special Development Plan (SDP): In order to develop 114 backward taluks identified by Dr. Nanjundappa Committee report schemes like Jalasiri (Construction of water harvesting structures), Special Component Plan for SDP and non SDP taluks (development of land belonging to Schedule caste farmers), Tribal Sub Plan for SDP and non SDP taluks (Development of land belonging to scheduled tribes farmers), and Development of Saline and Alkaline waterlogged area are implemented in the State. Financial progress of Rs.809.28 crore has been achieved.

 

Source: A Handbook of Karnataka, 2015

Department of Gazetteer, Government of Karnataka

 

Last Updated : 07-09-2021 12:56 PM Aprover: Admin

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